Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2006. Indicator 2. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

08/30/2006

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month by Program: 2003

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month by Program: 2003

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2004, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • About one-third of TANF and food stamp recipients lived in families with at least one fulltime worker in 2003, with an additional one quarter living in families with a labor force participant who was not full time. Thus, 53 percent of TANF recipients and 58 percent of food stamp recipients were in families with at least one person in the labor force. In contrast, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participant.
  • As shown in Table IND 2a, persons in female-headed families receiving TANF were less likely to live with at least one full-time worker than were persons in similar families receiving food stamps and SSI.
  • As shown in Table IND 2b, the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with at least one full-time worker increased from 19 percent in 1993 to 35 percent in 1999 and remained stable through 2002. From 2002 to 2003 this percentage decreased to 29 percent. Lower family employment rates are reported in the TANF administrative data, which is limited to employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to the welfare agency (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program Race/Ethnicity and Age: 2003

    No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT At Least One FT Worker
TANF All Persons 47.4 24.1 28.5
  Non-Hispanic White 44.8 22.6 32.7
  Non-Hispanic Black 53.3 26.2 20.5
  Hispanic 44.1 21.8 34.1
  Children Ages 0-5 47.9 21.7 30.4
  Children Ages 6-10 50.6 23.3 26.1
  Children Ages 11-15 50.6 22.9 26.4
  Women Ages 16-64 46.4 26.3 27.3
  Men Ages 16-64 34.8 30.6 34.6
  Adults Ages 65 and over 17.4 5.4 77.3
  Persons in Married-Couple Families 21.1 24.1 54.7
  Persons in Female-Headed Families 59.2 23.5 17.2
  Persons in Male-Headed Families 31.9 29.0 39.1
  Unrelated Individuals 0 0 0
FOOD STAMPS All Persons 41.5 24.0 34.4
  Non-Hispanic White 42.6 25.0 32.5
  Non-Hispanic Black 44.5 24.9 30.5
  Hispanic 35.8 19.6 44.5
  Children Ages 0-5 34.4 25.1 40.4
  Children Ages 6-10 34.2 25.6 40.2
  Children Ages 11-15 35.5 24.0 40.5
  Women Ages 16-64 42.4 25.6 32.0
  Men Ages 16-64 41.5 24.4 34.1
  Adults Ages 65 and over 84.5 8.4 7.1
  Persons in Married-Couple Families 24.2 21.9 53.9
  Persons in Female-Headed Families 42.9 27.2 30.0
  Persons in Male-Headed Families 36.4 26.9 36.7
  Unrelated Individuals 75.1 15.8 9.0
SSI All Persons 64.0 9.9 26.1
  Non-Hispanic White 68.3 8.5 23.1
  Non-Hispanic Black 65.5 13.1 21.4
  Hispanic 51.4 9.8 38.8
  Children Ages 0-5 37.1 15.8 47.1
  Children Ages 6-10 33.7 22.7 43.6
  Children Ages 11-15 33.6 16.7 49.7
  Women Ages 16-64 69.6 8.8 21.6
  Men Ages 16-64 67.2 10.2 22.6
  Adults Ages 65 and over 68.1 7.1 24.8
  Persons in Married-Couple Families 39.8 11.9 48.3
  Persons in Female-Headed Families 53.5 15.5 31.0
  Persons in Male-Headed Families 47.7 14.9 37.4
  Unrelated Individuals 97.4 2.1 0.5

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month. Spouses are not present in the Female-Headed and Male-Headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2004, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants 1993-2003

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT At Least One FT Worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3
2002 39.8 25.8 34.3
2003 47.4 24.1 28.5

Note: See above.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994-2004, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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