Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2005 . Supplemental Security Income

08/30/2005

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means-tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons. To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability. Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18 and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements. Individuals and married couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels of $564 for an individual and $846 for a married couple in fiscal year 2004. SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the SSI program. Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort.” Therefore, SSA helps recipients obtain any other public assistance that they are eligible to receive before providing SSI benefits. After evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.” As of December 2001, 36 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security retirement or survivor benefits, which are the single greatest source of income for SSI recipients.

Prior to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), no individual could receive both SSI payments and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefits. If eligible for both, the individual had to choose which benefit to receive. Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit. Since states have the authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels under PRWORA, individuals are not prohibited from receiving both TANF benefits and SSI.

With the exception of California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash payments that are included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps. If all household members receive SSI, the household is categorically eligible for food stamps and does not need to meet the Food Stamp Program’s financial eligibility standards. If SSI beneficiaries live in households in which other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress affected SSI participation and expenditures. Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibited SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability. This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment. It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of limiting benefits to severely disabled children. First, the act replaced the former “comparable severity” test with a new definition of disability specifically for children, based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment that results in “marked and severe functional limitations.” Second, SSA discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which it had implemented in 1991 following the Supreme Court's decision in Sullivan v Zebley, 493 U.S. 521 (1990).1 Third, references to “maladaptive behaviors” in certain sections of the Listing of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function) were eliminated. The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996). Beneficiaries who were receiving benefits due to an IFA or under the Listings because of limitations resulting from maladaptive behaviors received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case was redetermined. Additional provisions of the PRWORA with impact on enrollment are the requirement that eligibility be redetermined when beneficiaries reach age 18, using the adult disability standard; that "continuing disability reviews" be done for children; and that children who were eligible due to low birth weight have their eligibility redetermined at age one.

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits. Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which “grandfathered” immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA. Those immigrants who entered the U.S. after August 22, 1996, may be eligible to receive SSI after having been “lawfully admitted for permanent residence.”

Several provisions aimed at reducing SSI fraud and improving recovery of overpayments were enacted in 1999 as part of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-169). Other legislation enacted in 1999 provides additional work incentives for disabled beneficiaries of SSI. Additionally, the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-203), enacted March 2, 2004, introduced program and beneficiary protections covering the use of representative payees and required documentation of changes in beneficiary status.

SSI Program Data

The following tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables SSI 1 through SSI 5 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program.
  • Table SSI 6 presents demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload.
  • Tables SSI 7 through SSI 9 present state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 2003.

SSI Caseload Trends (Tables SSI 1 and SSI 2 and Figure SSI 1). From 1990 to 1995, the number of SSI beneficiaries increased from 4.8 million to 6.5 million, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year. Between 1995 and 2000, the number of beneficiaries fluctuated between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons. In December 2003, there were 6.9 million beneficiaries. Table SSI 1 presents information on the total number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 2003, and also presents recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adults ages 18-64, and adults ages 65 or older). See also Tables IND 3c and IND 4c in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table SSI 1. The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to a low of 1.2 million persons in December 2003. At the same time, there has been strong growth in blind and disabled beneficiaries, from 1.7 million in December 1974 to 5.7 million in December 2003. Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly during the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 309,000 in December 1990 to 955,000 in December 1996. The number of disabled children fell in the next three years, stabilized at 847,000 in 1999 and 2000, and began to rise again in 2001, reaching 959,000 in 2003.

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). GAO concluded that three groups – adults with mental impairments, children, and non-citizens – accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth in the early 1990s. The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case, expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.2

SSI Expenditures (Tables SSI 3 through SSI 5). While administrative costs increased by about 1 percent, the total amount paid out in SSI benefits increased from $33.1 billion (inflation adjusted) in 2001 to $35.6 billion in 2003, as shown in Table SSI 3. Average monthly benefits per person were $421 in 2003, down slightly from 2002 inflation adjusted benefit level of $424. For more details see Table SSI 4.

SSI Recipient Characteristics (Table SSI 6). Over the last 20 years, the percentage of aged SSI recipients has dramatically decreased, while the percentage of disabled recipients has increased substantially. As shown in Table SSI 6, the proportion of SSI recipients aged 65 or older has decreased dramatically, from 54 percent in 1980 to 29 percent in 2003.

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients, by Age: 1974–2003

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients, by Age: 1974–2003

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).

Table SSI 1. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments: 1974–2003
(thousands)
Date Total Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
Aged Blind and Disabled Children Adults
Total Blind Disabled
Ages
18-64
65 or
Older
Dec1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 71 1 1,503 2,422
Dec1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 107 1,699 2,508
Dec1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 125 1,714 2,397
Dec1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 147 1,738 2,353
Dec1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 166 1,747 2,304
Dec1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 177 1,727 2,246
Dec1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 190 1,731 2,221
Dec1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 195 1,703 2,121
Dec1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 192 1,655 2,011
Dec1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 198 1,700 2,003
Dec1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 212 1,780 2,037
Dec1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 227 1,879 2,031
Dec1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 241 2,010 2,018
Dec1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 251 2,119 2,015
Dec1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 255 2,203 2,006
Dec1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 265 2,302 2,026
Dec1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 309 2,450 2,059
Dec1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 397 2,642 2,080
Dec1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 556 2,910 2,100
Dec1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 723 3,148 2,113
Dec1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 841 3,335 2,119
Dec1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 917 3,482 2,115
Dec1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 955 3,568 2,090
Dec1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 880 3,562 2,054
Dec1998 6,566 1,332 5,234 80 5,154 887 3,646 2,033
Dec1999 6,557 1,308 5,249 79 5,169 847 3,691 2,019
Dec2000 6,602 1,289 5,312 79 5,234 847 3,744 2,011
Dec2001 6,688 1,264 5,424 78 5,346 882 3,811 1,995
Dec2002 6,788 1,252 5,537 78 5,459 915 3,878 1,995
Dec2003 6,902 1,233 5,670 77 5,593 959 3,878 1,990

1 Includes students 18-21 in 1974 only.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income, Annual Statistical Report, 2004 (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).

Table SSI 2. SSI Recipiency Rates: 1974–2003
(percent)
Date
All Recipients
as a Percent
of Total
Population 1
Adults 18-64
as a Percent
of 18-64
Population 1
Child
Recipients
as a Percent
of All Children 1
Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older)
as a Percent of
All Persons
65 & Older 1
All Elderly
Poor 2
Pretransfer
Elderly Poor 3
Dec 1974 1.9 1.2 0.1 10.8 78.5 NA
Dec 1975 2.0 1.3 0.2 10.9 75.6 NA
Dec 1976 1.9 1.3 0.2 10.2 72.4 NA
Dec 1977 1.9 1.3 0.2 9.7 74.1 NA
Dec 1978 1.9 1.3 0.3 9.3 71.5 NA
Dec 1979 1.8 1.3 0.3 8.8 61.3 66.8
Dec 1980 1.8 1.2 0.3 8.6 57.5 64.7
Dec 1981 1.7 1.2 0.3 8.0 55.0 63.3
Dec 1982 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.4 53.6 62.3
Dec 1983 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.3 55.2 61.9
Dec 1984 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.2 61.2 66.3
Dec 1985 1.7 1.3 0.4 7.1 58.7 64.5
Dec 1986 1.8 1.3 0.4 6.9 57.9 63.4
Dec 1987 1.8 1.4 0.4 6.7 56.5 64.7
Dec 1988 1.8 1.5 0.4 6.6 57.6 64.3
Dec 1989 1.9 1.5 0.4 6.5 60.3 64.6
Dec 1990 1.9 1.6 0.5 6.5 56.3 63.3
Dec 1991 2.0 1.7 0.6 6.5 55.0 61.1
Dec 1992 2.2 1.9 0.8 6.4 53.5 59.8
Dec 1993 2.3 2.0 1.1 6.4 56.3 63.3
Dec 1994 2.4 2.1 1.2 6.3 57.9 65.6
Dec 1995 2.4 2.2 1.3 6.2 63.7 71.4
Dec 1996 2.4 2.2 1.4 6.1 61.0 69.3
Dec 1997 2.4 2.2 1.2 6.0 60.8 69.1
Dec 1998 2.4 2.2 1.2 5.9 60.0 69.1
Dec 1999 2.3 2.2 1.2 5.8 62.6 72.4
Dec 2000 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.7 60.5 66.9
Dec 2001 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.6 58.4 67.6
Dec 2002 2.3 2.1 1.3 5.6 55.8 64.5
Dec 2003 2.4 2.2 1.3 5.5 56.0 xxx

1 Population numbers used for the denominators are Census Bureau resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year (resident population estimates by age are available online at http://www.census.gov).

2 For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-226.

3 The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.

Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table SSI 1. Rates computed by DHHS.

Source: 1994 Green Book and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance in the United States: 2003," Current Population Reports, Series P60-226, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Table SSI 3. Total, Federal and State SSI Benefits and Administration: 1974–2003 1
(millions)
Calendar
Year
Total Benefits
Federal
Payments
State Supplementation AdministrativeCosts (fiscal year)
20032
Dollars
Current
Dollars
Total
Federally
Administered
State
Administered
1974 $18,598 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975 19,245 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976 18,790 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977 18,359 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 526
1978 17,860 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979 17,592 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 611
1980 17,753 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981 17,548 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 717
1982 17,286 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 780
1983 17,373 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 846
1984 18,368 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985 18,914 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 956
1986 20,282 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,023
1987 20,977 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 977
1988 21,443 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 976
1989 22,228 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,052
1990 23,368 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991 25,025 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,230
1992 29,157 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,426
1993 31,270 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,468
1994 32,127 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,780
1995 33,356 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,978
1996 33,765 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,953
1997 33,306 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055
1998 34,109 30,216 26,405 3,812 3,003 808 2,304
1999 34,153 30,923 26,805 4,154 3,301 853 2,493
2000 33,727 31,564 27,290 4,274 3,381 893 2,321
2001 34,349 33,061 28,706 4,355 3,460 895 2,397
2002 35,355 34,567 29,899 4,668 3,820 848 2,522
2003 35,605 35,605 30,688 4,917 4,005 912 2,656

1 Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year

2 Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1 for calendar years

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004, (Data available online at http://wwwssagov/statistics).

Table SSI 4. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments: 1974–2003

Calendar
Year
Total 1
Federal
Payments
State Supplementation
2003 Dollars
Current
Dollars
Total
Federally
Administered
State
Administered
1974 $477 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975 368 112 92 66 69 45
1976 365 118 99 68 71 50
1977 357 123 104 69 72 53
1978 349 128 108 72 74 56
1979 349 140 119 77 79 67
1980 353 158 133 89 91 76
1981 360 176 151 92 94 79
1982 369 191 166 96 97 93
1983 366 198 172 91 92 89
1984 374 211 187 93 93 93
1985 375 219 193 99 99 102
1986 389 232 202 107 108 101
1987 392 242 208 117 118 110
1988 393 253 219 118 118 118
1989 396 267 230 126 126 127
1990 398 283 244 132 131 136
1991 401 297 260 125 122 143
1992 430 328 292 124 121 147
1993 430 337 306 112 107 150
1994 420 338 310 105 99 152
1995 423 350 322 110 103 164
1996 421 359 333 108 103 145
1997 423 369 342 99 102 86
1998 428 379 350 103 104 102
1999 429 388 356 111 113 105
2000 420 393 360 113 114 109
2001 423 407 373 113 114 108
2002 424 415 383 129 129 128
2003 421 421 387 136 135 138

1 Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and State- only average benefit.

Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table SSI 3 and the denominators are given in Table SSI 5. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using a calendar-year average CPI-U-X1 index.

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004.

Table SSI 5. Number of Persons Receiving SSI Payments, by Type of Payment: 1974–2003
(thousands)
  Total Federal State Supplementation
Total
Federally Administered
State Administered
Jan 1974.................................... 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec 1975.................................... 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec 1980.................................... 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec 1984.................................... 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec 1985.................................... 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec 1986.................................... 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec 1987.................................... 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec 1988.................................... 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec 1989.................................... 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec 1990.................................... 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec 1991.................................... 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec 1992.................................... 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec 1993.................................... 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec 1994.................................... 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec 1995.................................... 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec 1996.................................... 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec 1997.................................... 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657
Dec 1998.................................... 6,649 6,289 3,072 2,412 661
Dec 1999.................................... 6,641 6,275 3,116 2,441 675
Dec 2000.................................... 6,685 6,320 3,164 2,481 683
Dec 2001.................................... 6,776 6,410 3,209 2,520 689
Dec 2002.................................... 6,940 6,505 3,014 2,462 553
Dec 2003.................................... 7,052 6,614 3,019 2,467 551

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004.

Table SSI 6. Characteristics of SSI Recipients, by Age, Sex, Earnings/Income
and Citizenship: Selected Years 1980-2003
 
  1980 1985 1990 1994 1998 2000 2002 2003
Total
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 18 5.5 5.5 6.4 13.4 13.5 12.8 13.5 13.9
18-64 40.9 45.4 50.9 53.0 55.5 56.7 57.2 57.3
65 or Older 53.6 49.1 42.7 33.7 31.0 30.5 29.3 28.8
Sex
Male 34.4 35.2 37.2 41.3 41.3 41.5 42.0 42.4
Female 65.5 64.8 62.8 58.7 58.7 58.5 58.0 57.6
Selected Sources of Income
Earnings 3.2 3.8 4.7 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.5
Social Security 51.0 49.4 45.9 39.1 36.5 36.1 35.5 35.1
No Other Income 34.8 34.5 36.4 43.6 47.3 54.4 55.1 55.4
Noncitizens NA 5.1 9.0 11.7 10.2 10.5 10.4 10.1
Eligibility Category
Aged 43.6 36.4 30.2 23.3 20.3 19.5 18.4 17.9
Blind 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1
Disabled 54.5 61.7 68.1 75.4 78.5 79.3 80.4 81.0
Aged
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
65-69 14.0 14.9 19.4 20.5 17.6 17.6 15.3 15.2
70-79 51.5 45.6 41.3 44.3 48.4 48.4 49.1 48.2
80 or older 34.5 39.5 39.2 35.1 34.0 34.0 35.7 36.6
Sex
Male 27.3 25.5 25.1 26.8 27.8 27.8 29.9 30.3
Female 72.6 74.5 74.9 73.2 72.2 72.2 70.1 69.7
Noncitizens NA 9.7 19.4 30.0 27.0 27.0 29.2 28.9
Blind and Disabled
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
18-64 80.2 77.7 80.0 83.4 83.6 83.6 83.8 83.9
65 or older 19.8 22.3 20.0 16.6 16.4 16.4 16.1 16.1
Sex1
Male 39.8 40.8 42.4 41.8 41.1 41.1 44.8 45.0
Female 60.2 59.2 57.6 58.2 58.9 58.9 55.2 55.0
Noncitizens NA 2.4 4.6 6.2 5.5 5.5 7.2 6.0
Children
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 11.7 NA NA 15.8 15.8 15.8 16.1 16.2
5-9 20.9 NA NA 28.5 30.2 30.2 26.8 26.7
10-14 28.8 NA NA 32.7 34.6 34.6 36.9 36.7
15-17 21.7 NA NA 17.3 19.4 19.4 20.2 20.4
18-212 16.8 14.3 9.3 5.7
Sex
Male NA NA NA 63.0 62.9 62.9 64.3 64.7
Female NA NA NA 37.0 37.1 37.1 35.7 35.3

1 For 1980-1992 male-female classification reflects all blind and disabled, both children and adults; thereafter, it is based on adults only.

2 In this table, students 18-21 are classified as children prior to 1998.

Note: Data are for December of the year.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 and prior years.

Table SSI 7. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments and State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 2003 (thousands)
State Total
Total
Federal
Federal
SSI
State Supplementation
Federally
Administered
State
Administered
Total $35,604,829 $34,693,278 $30,688,029 $4,005,249 $911,551
Alabama 738,282 737,864 737,864 418
Alaska 102,312 46,650 46,650 55,662
Arizona 429,640 429,266 429,266 374
Arkansas 361,449 361,449 361,445 4
California 7,573,189 7,573,189 4,594,264 2,978,925
Colorado 333,924 245,610 245,610 88,314
Connecticut 332,186 244,249 244,249 87,937
Delaware 58,853 58,853 57,842 1,011
District of Columbia 104,754 104,754 101,398 3,356
Florida 1,927,484 1,907,671 1,907,671 19,813
Georgia 887,534 887,534 887,521 13
Hawaii 112,546 112,546 100,327 12,219
Idaho 98,187 90,651 90,651 7,536
Illinois 1,296,419 1,266,722 1,266,722 29,697
Indiana 444,294 440,514 440,514 3,780
Iowa 192,737 176,138 172,993 3,145 16,599
Kansas 169,930 169,930 169,930
Kentucky 837,776 819,136 819,136 18,640
Louisiana 769,164 768,662 768,662 502
Maine 154,958 135,931 135,931 19,027
Maryland 450,002 441,479 441,463 16 8,523
Massachusetts 854,601 854,601 689,082 165,519
Michigan 1,164,793 1,086,326 1,061,722 24,604 78,467
Minnesota 407,273 316,268 316,268 91,005
Mississippi 550,133 550,133 550,119 14
Missouri 554,337 528,033 528,033 26,304
Montana 63,633 63,633 62,783 850
Nebraska 101,570 95,263 95,263 6,307
Nevada 144,194 144,194 138,933 5,261
New Hampshire 69,594 57,997 57,997 11,597
New Jersey 731,586 731,586 650,405 81,181
New Mexico 223,135 222,902 222,902 233
New York 3,400,463 3,400,463 2,848,138 552,325
North Carolina 965,057 824,976 824,976 140,081
North Dakota 33,788 31,856 31,856 1,932
Ohio 1,203,950 1,203,950 1,203,941 9
Oklahoma 376,375 338,925 338,925 37,450
Oregon 291,441 271,165 271,165 20,276
Pennsylvania 1,599,027 1,599,027 1,453,656 145,371
Rhode Island 149,950 149,950 126,866 23,084
South Carolina 483,611 461,421 461,421 22,190
South Dakota 54,182 51,674 51,671 3 2,508
Tennessee 718,938 718,938 718,938
Texas 1,903,087 1,901,120 1,901,120 1,967
Utah 99,124 99,123 99,067 56
Vermont 57,441 57,441 49,013 8,428
Virginia 606,200 586,507 586,507 19,693
Washington 545,912 545,684 545,680 4 228
West Virginia 357,405 357,405 357,405
Wisconsin 524,654 397,850 397,850 126,804
Wyoming 25,537 24,850 24,850 687
Other: N. Mariana Islands 3,549 3,549 3,549

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004.

Table SSI 8. SSI Recipiency Rates, by State and Program Type: 1979 and 2003
(percent)
  Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-64 Rate for Adults 65 & over
1979 2003
Percent
Change
1979-03
1979 2003
Percent
Change
1979-03
1979 2003
Percent
Change
1979-03
Total 1.9 2.4 30 1.3 2.2 75 9.0 5.5 -39
Alabama 3.6 3.6 1 1.8 3.5 91 21.0 6.5 -69
Alaska 0.8 1.6 108 0.5 1.6 196 14.0 7.5 -47
Arizona 1.1 1.6 44 0.9 1.6 80 5.0 3.2 -36
Arkansas 3.5 3.2 -9 1.9 3.0 60 17.1 5.5 -68
California 3.0 3.3 9 2.1 2.5 22 16.4 13.3 -19
Colorado 1.1 1.2 9 0.8 1.1 43 6.7 3.1 -54
Connecticut 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.5 138 2.7 2.6 -4
Delaware 1.2 1.6 34 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 2.3 -58
District of Columbia 2.3 3.6 58 1.9 3.1 61 8.6 6.5 -24
Florida 1.8 2.4 35 1.1 1.9 67 6.2 4.7 -24
Georgia 2.9 2.3 -20 1.9 2.1 11 17.7 6.5 -63
Hawaii 1.1 1.7 62 0.7 1.5 117 7.6 5.0 -34
Idaho 0.8 1.5 90 0.6 1.6 150 3.8 1.9 -50
Illinois 1.1 2.0 85 1.0 2.0 111 4.3 3.8 -11
Indiana 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.6 162 3.3 1.7 -49
Iowa 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.6 158 3.5 1.7 -51
Kansas 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.5 138 3.5 1.9 -45
Kentucky 2.5 4.3 69 1.8 4.5 151 12.5 6.9 -45
Louisiana 3.4 3.7 10 2.0 3.5 72 20.1 7.5 -63
Maine 2.0 2.4 23 1.4 2.7 94 8.6 3.0 -65
Maryland 1.2 1.7 48 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 4.0 -26
Massachusetts 2.2 2.6 16 1.3 2.5 95 10.8 5.6 -48
Michigan 1.3 2.2 75 1.1 2.3 115 5.9 2.9 -50
Minnesota 0.8 1.4 73 0.6 1.4 155 3.7 2.6 -30
Mississippi 4.5 4.4 -2 2.4 4.0 65 26.0 9.6 -63
Missouri 1.8 2.0 14 1.1 2.1 91 7.9 2.8 -65
Montana 0.9 1.6 80 0.7 1.7 136 3.8 2.0 -47
Nebraska 0.9 1.3 48 0.6 1.4 119 3.4 1.7 -50
Nevada 0.8 1.4 67 0.5 1.2 126 5.9 3.3 -44
New Hampshire 0.6 1.0 72 0.4 1.1 150 2.5 1.2 -53
New Jersey 1.1 1.7 49 0.9 1.5 74 4.7 4.5 -4
New Mexico 2.0 2.7 37 1.4 2.5 82 12.4 6.9 -44
New York 2.1 3.3 56 1.6 2.7 70 8.3 9.0 9
North Carolina 2.4 2.3 -4 1.6 2.1 33 13.6 5.1 -63
North Dakota 1.0 1.3 31 0.6 1.3 128 5.1 2.1 -58
Ohio 1.1 2.1 89 1.0 2.3 132 4.2 2.4 -42
Oklahoma 2.3 2.1 -9 1.3 2.2 65 11.6 3.6 -69
Oregon 0.9 1.6 86 0.7 1.7 143 3.3 2.7 -18
Pennsylvania 1.4 2.5 79 1.1 2.6 132 5.0 3.4 -31
Rhode Island 1.6 2.7 70 1.1 2.7 150 6.4 4.9 -24
South Carolina 2.7 2.5 -7 1.8 2.3 29 17.0 5.2 -69
South Dakota 1.1 1.6 40 0.7 1.6 122 5.0 2.9 -42
Tennessee 2.9 2.8 -2 1.9 2.7 44 14.8 5.3 -64
Texas 1.9 2.1 11 1.0 1.7 79 12.7 7.4 -42
Utah 0.6 0.9 64 0.5 1.0 96 3.0 1.8 -41
Vermont 1.8 2.1 19 1.3 2.2 68 8.1 3.4 -58
Virginia 1.5 1.8 20 1.0 1.6 57 8.5 4.4 -48
Washington 1.2 1.8 55 1.0 1.8 84 4.8 3.6 -25
West Virginia 2.1 4.2 97 1.9 4.8 158 8.0 4.5 -43
Wisconsin 1.4 1.6 11 1.0 1.7 77 6.5 2.3 -65
Wyoming 0.4 1.1 162 0.3 1.2 314 2.7 1.5 -45

Note: Recipiency rates for 2002 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the estimated population in the respective age group as of the month of July; calculations by DHHS. The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year. The total recipiency rate includes both children and adults.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income, Annual Statistical Report, 2003 and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table SSI 9. SSI Recipiency Rates, by State: Selected Fiscal Years 1975–2003
(percent)
  1975 1980 1985 1990 1994 2 1998 2 20022 20032
Total 1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
Alabama 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6
Alaska 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6
Arizona 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6
Arkansas 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.1 3.2
California 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3
Colorado 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2
Connecticut 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5
Delaware 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
District of Columbia 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.6
Florida 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4
Georgia 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.3
Hawaii 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7
Idaho 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
Illinois 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0
Indiana 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Iowa 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Kansas 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Kentucky 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.3
Louisiana 3.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.7
Maine 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4
Maryland 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7
Massachusetts 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6
Michigan 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.5 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2
Minnesota 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4
Mississippi 5.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 5.2 4.9 4.4 4.4
Missouri 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
Montana 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Nebraska 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Nevada 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4
New Hampshire 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0
New Jersey 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
New Mexico 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7
New York 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3
North Carolina 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.3
North Dakota 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Ohio 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1
Oklahoma 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1
Oregon 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Pennsylvania 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5
Rhode Island 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.7
South Carolina 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.5
South Dakota 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6
Tennessee 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.1 2.8 2.8
Texas 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1
Utah 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9
Vermont 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Virginia 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8
Washington 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8
West Virginia 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.2
Wisconsin 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 1.7 1.6 1.6
Wyoming 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1

1 The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, and 1992, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, and 71 respectively.

2 For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year. For 1994-2003 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.

Source: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Income, Annual Statistical Report, 2004, and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

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