Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2005 . Indicator 2. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

08/30/2005

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month by Program: 2002

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month by Program: 2002

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2003, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

  • About one-third of TANF and food stamp recipients lived in families with at least one full-time worker in 2002, with an additional one fourth living in families with a labor force participant who was not full time. Thus, 60 percent of TANF recipients and 58 percent of food stamp recipients were in families with at least one person in the labor force. In contrast, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participant.
  • As shown in Table IND 2a, young children (under age six) in households receiving TANF and SSI were more likely to live with at least one full-time worker than were older children (ages 11-15) in such recipient households. There is less variation in labor force participation by age of children among households receiving food stamps.
  • The percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with at least one full-time worker increased from 19 percent in 1993 to 35 percent in 1999, as shown in Table IND 2b. Since 1999, this percentage has remained around 34 to 35 percent. Lower family employment rates are reported in the TANF administrative data, which is limited to employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to the welfare agency (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program Race/Ethnicity and Age: 2002

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT
At Least One
FT Worker

TANF

All Persons 39.8 25.8 34.3
Non-Hispanic White 38.9 27.8 33.4
Non-Hispanic Black 42.9 27.6 29.6
Hispanic 40.5 22.6 36.9
Children Ages 0-5 37.7 25.0 37.3
Children Ages 6-10 45.1 23.8 31.1
Children Ages 11-15 44.4 23.7 31.9
Women Ages 16-64 39.0 27.7 33.3
Men Ages 16-64 31.9 29.5 38.6
Adults Ages 65 and over 60.7 13.7 25.6
FOOD STAMPS All Persons 42.1 24.6 33.4
Non-Hispanic White 45.1 25.4 29.5
Non-Hispanic Black 41.5 26.5 32.0
Hispanic 37.6 19.5 42.9
Children Ages 0-5 33.4 25.6 41.0
Children Ages 6-10 32.9 26.7 40.4
Children Ages 11-15 34.7 26.4 39.0
Women Ages 16-64 43.2 25.8 30.9
Men Ages 16-64 41.1 26.2 32.7
Adults Ages 65 and over 88.2 6.1 5.8
SSI All Persons 61.2 9.7 29.0
Non-Hispanic White 65.5 8.8 25.7
Non-Hispanic Black 65.6 12.1 22.3
Hispanic 52.0 9.7 38.3
Children Ages 0-5 30.1 15.9 54.0
Children Ages 6-10 34.8 19.5 45.7
Children Ages 11-15 31.0 21.1 47.9
Women Ages 16-64 68.5 9.4 22.1
Men Ages 16-64 62.3 9.2 28.5
Adults Ages 65 and over 65.0 6.8 28.2

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2003, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants 1993-2002

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT
At Least One
FT Worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3
2002 35.3 35.3 34.3

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994-2003, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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