Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2005 . Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 2. Employment Among the Low-skilled

08/30/2005

Figure WORK 2. Percentage of All Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed at Any Time during Year: 1968-2003

Figure WORK 2. Percentage of All Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed at Any Time during Year: 1968-2003

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969-2004.

  • Employment rates for women with a high school education or less generally increased during the 1980s and 1990s, although this trend has shown some modest reversal since 2000. Employment levels have been higher among low-skilled non-Hispanic white and black women (67 and 65 percent, respectively, in 2003) than among low-skilled Hispanic women (57 percent).
  • In contrast, employment levels for men with a high school education or less have decreased over the past three decades. The decline has been steepest among non-Hispanic black men, whose employment level in 2003 (66 percent) was considerably lower than those of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic men (81 and 85 percent respectively).
  • As shown in Figure and Table WORK 2, employment levels for non-Hispanic black men with a high school education or less were 1 percentage point higher than those of similarly educated non-Hispanic black women in 2003. In contrast, there was a 14 percentage point difference in employment levels of non-Hispanic white men and women with a high school education or less, and a 28 percentage point difference between similarly educated Hispanic men and women.

Table WORK 2. Percentage of All Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed: 1968-2003

  Women Men
  Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic
1968 55.8 65.8 NA 92.8 89.9 NA
1969 56.1 64.9 NA 92.1 89.2 NA
1971 55.2 59.4 NA 90.9 86.1 NA
1972 55.6 55.6 NA 91.1 84.3 NA
1975 58.3 57.2 49.7 88.2 78.8 86.2
1977 61.4 57.6 52.2 88.3 78.1 78.1
1979 62.9 58.9 55.0 88.5 78.7 89.4
1980 64.1 57.6 53.7 88.0 75.2 86.8
1981 64.0 57.5 53.0 87.4 74.5 87.6
1982 62.7 56.6 51.1 85.6 71.1 85.3
1983 63.5 55.3 51.7 84.8 70.2 85.2
1984 65.0 58.9 54.0 86.5 71.9 83.9
1985 66.0 59.4 52.9 86.1 74.6 83.9
1986 66.8 61.0 54.0 86.4 74.3 86.5
1987 67.3 59.9 54.0 86.7 73.9 85.6
1988 68.0 61.4 54.6 86.3 74.0 87.8
1989 68.8 61.1 55.8 87.7 75.3 86.6
1990 68.5 60.7 55.0 87.7 75.6 85.4
1991 68.3 61.0 54.6 86.4 73.9 85.0
1992 67.8 57.8 53.3 85.7 71.5 83.7
1993 68.6 60.0 52.2 84.6 71.2 83.5
1994 69.0 60.9 53.3 85.0 69.1 83.2
1995 69.6 60.1 53.9 85.9 70.1 83.3
1996 70.2 64.1 55.4 85.9 70.3 84.0
1997 69.9 66.6 56.9 85.3 72.0 85.0
1998 70.4 67.1 57.1 85.3 71.8 85.5
1999 71.4 68.4 58.8 84.5 72.0 86.4
2000 70.6 67.7 61.0 84.7 72.7 86.4
2001 69.8 64.8 64.8 83.4 69.9 85.5
2002 69.5 64.4 57.5 82.5 67.3 85.1
2003 66.9 65.2 56.9 81.1 65.7 84.6

Note: All data include both full and partial year employment for the given calendar year.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are not shown separately. Hispanic origin was not available until 1975.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969-2004.

 

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