Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2004. Supplemental Security Income

04/27/2005

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means-tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons. To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability. Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18 and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements. Individuals and married couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels of $552 for an individual and $829 for a married couple in fiscal year 2003. SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the SSI program. Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort.” Therefore, SSA helps recipients obtain any other public assistance that they are eligible to receive before providing SSI benefits. After evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.” As of December 2001, 36 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security retirement or survivor benefits, which are the single greatest source of income for SSI recipients.

Prior to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), no individual could receive both SSI payments and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefits. If eligible for both, the individual had to choose which benefit to receive. Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit. Since states have the authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels under PRWORA, individuals are not prohibited from receiving both TANF benefits and SSI.

With the exception of California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash payments that are included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps. If all household members receive SSI, the household is categorically eligible for food stamps and does not need to meet the Food Stamp Program’s financial eligibility standards. If SSI beneficiaries live in households in which other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress affected SSI participation and expenditures. Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibited SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability. This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment. It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of limiting benefits to severely disabled children. First, the act replaced the former “comparable severity” test with a new definition of disability specifically for children, based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment that result in “marked and severe functional limitations.” Second, SSA discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which it had implemented in 1991 following the Supreme Court’s decision inSullivanv.Zebley, 493 U.S. 521(1990)(3).1Third references to “maladaptive behaviors” in certain sections of the Listing of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function) were eliminated. The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996). Beneficiaries who were receiving benefits due to an IFA or under the Listings because of limitations resulting from maladaptive behaviors received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case was redetermined. Additional provisions of the PRWORA with impact on enrollment are the requirement that eligibility be redetermined when beneficiaries reach age 18, using the adult disability standard; that “continuing disability reviews” be done for children; and that children who were eligible due to low birth weight have their eligibility redetermined at age one.

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits. Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which “grandfathered” immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA. Those immigrants who entered the U.S. after August 22, 1996, may be eligible to receive SSI after having been “lawfully admitted for permanent residence.”

Several provisions aimed at reducing SSI fraud and improving recovery of overpayments were enacted in 1999 as part of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-169). Other legislation enacted in 1999 provides additional work incentives for disabled beneficiaries of SSI.

SSI Program Data

The following tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables SSI 1 through SSI 5 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program.
  • Table SSI 6 presents demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload.
  • Tables SSI 7 and SSI 8 present state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 2002.

SSI Caseload Trends(Tables SSI 1-2 and Figure SSI 1). From 1990 to 1995, the number of SSI beneficiaries increased from 4.8 million to 6.5 million, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year. Between 1995 and 2000, the number of beneficiaries fluctuated between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons. In December 2002, there were 6.8 million beneficiaries. Table SSI 1 presents information on the total number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 2002, and also presents recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adult age 18-64, and adult age 65 or older). See also Table IND 4c in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table SSI 2. The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to less than 1.3 million persons in December 2002. At the same time, there has been strong growth in blind and disabled beneficiaries, from 1.7 million in December 1974 to 5.5 million in December 2002. Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly during the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 309,000 in December 1990 to 955,000 in December 1996. The number of disabled children fell in the next three years, stabilized at 847,000 in 1999 and 2000, and rose to 915,000 in 2002.

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the General Accounting Office (GAO). GAO concluded that three groups— adults with mental impairments, children, and non-citizens— accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth in the early 1990s. The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in theZebleycase, expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.2

SSI Expenditures.While administrative costs increased by about 1 percent, the total amount paid out in SSI benefits increased from $33.6 billion (inflation adjusted) in 2001 to $34.6 billion in 2002, as shown in Table SSI 3. Average monthly benefits per person were $415 in 2002, up slightly from 2001 inflation adjusted benefit level of $413. For more details see Table SSI 4.

SSI Recipient Characteristics.Over the last 20 years, the percentage of aged SSI recipients has dramatically decreased, while the percentage of disabled recipients has increased substantially. As shown in Table SSI 6, the proportion of SSI recipients aged 65 or older has decreased dramatically, from 54 percent in 1980 to 29 percent in 2002.

Figure SSI 1.SSI Recipients by Age, 1974– 2002
Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 2002
Source:Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003(Data available online athttp://www.ssa.gov/statistics).

Table SSI 1. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments 1974– 2002
[In thousands]

Date Total Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
Aged Blind and Disabled Children Adults
Total Blind Disabled Age 18-64 65 or Older
Dec 1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 711 1,503 2,422
Dec 1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 107 1,699 2,508
Dec 1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 125 1,714 2,397
Dec 1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 147 1,738 2,353
Dec 1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 166 1,747 2,304
Dec 1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 177 1,727 2,246
Dec 1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 190 1,731 2,221
Dec 1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 195 1,703 2,121
Dec 1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 192 1,655 2,011
Dec 1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 198 1,700 2,003
Dec 1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 212 1,780 2,037
Dec 1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 227 1,879 2,031
Dec 1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 241 2,010 2,018
Dec 1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 251 2,119 2,015
Dec 1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 255 2,203 2,006
Dec 1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 265 2,302 2,026
Dec 1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 309 2,450 2,059
Dec 1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 397 2,642 2,080
Dec 1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 556 2,910 2,100
Dec 1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 723 3,148 2,113
Dec 1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 841 3,335 2,119
Dec 1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 917 3,482 2,115
Dec 1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 955 3,568 2,090
Dec 1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 880 3,562 2,054
Dec 1998 6,566 1,332 5,234 80 5,154 887 3,646 2,033
Dec 1999 6,557 1,308 5,249 79 5,169 847 3,691 2,019
Dec 2000 6,602 1,289 5,312 79 5,234 847 3,744 2,011
Dec 2001 6,688 1,264 5,424 78 5,346 882 3,811 1,995
Dec 2002 6,788 1,252 5,537 78 5,537 915 3,878 1,995

1Includes students 18-21 in 1974 only.
Source:Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003(Data available online athttp://www.ssa.gov/statistics).


Table SSI 2. SSI Recipiency Rates, 1974– 2002
[In percent]

Date All Recipients as a Percent of Total Population1 Adults 18-64 as a Percent of 18-64 Population1 Child Recipients as a Percent of All Children1 Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
All Persons 65 & Older1 All Elderly Poor2 Pretransfer Elderly Poor3
Dec 1974 1.9 1.2 0.1 10.8 78.5 NA
Dec 1975 2.0 1.3 0.2 10.9 75.6 NA
Dec 1976 1.9 1.3 0.2 10.2 72.4 NA
Dec 1977 1.9 1.3 0.2 9.7 74.1 NA
Dec 1978 1.9 1.3 0.3 9.3 71.5 NA
Dec 1979 1.8 1.3 0.3 8.8 61.3 66.8
Dec 1980 1.8 1.2 0.3 8.6 57.5 64.7
Dec 1981 1.7 1.2 0.3 8.0 55.0 63.3
Dec 1982 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.4 53.6 62.3
Dec 1983 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.3 55.2 61.9
Dec 1984 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.2 61.2 66.3
Dec 1985 1.7 1.3 0.4 7.1 58.7 64.5
Dec 1986 1.8 1.3 0.4 6.9 57.9 63.4
Dec 1987 1.8 1.4 0.4 6.7 56.5 64.7
Dec 1988 1.8 1.5 0.4 6.6 57.6 64.3
Dec 1989 1.9 1.5 0.4 6.5 60.3 64.6
Dec 1990 1.9 1.6 0.5 6.5 56.3 63.3
Dec 1991 2.0 1.7 0.6 6.5 55.0 61.1
Dec 1992 2.2 1.9 0.8 6.4 53.5 59.8
Dec 1993 2.3 2.0 1.1 6.4 56.3 63.3
Dec 1994 2.4 2.1 1.2 6.3 57.9 65.6
Dec 1995 2.4 2.2 1.3 6.2 63.7 71.4
Dec 1996 2.4 2.2 1.4 6.1 61.0 69.3
Dec 1997 2.4 2.2 1.2 6.0 60.8 69.1
Dec 1998 2.4 2.2 1.2 5.9 60.0 69.1
Dec 1999 2.3 2.2 1.2 5.8 62.6 72.4
Dec 2000 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.7 60.5 66.9
Dec 2001 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.6 58.4 67.6
Dec 2002 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.6 55.8 64.5

1Population numbers used for the denominators are Census Bureau resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year (resident population estimates by age are available online athttp://www.census.gov).
2For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, seeCurrent Population Reports, Series P60-222.
3The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20,1992 Green Book;data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
Notes:Numerators for these ratios are from Table SSI 1. Rates computed by DHHS.
Source:1994 Green Bookand U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 2002”Current Population Reports, Series P60-222 and earlier years, (Available online athttp://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).


Table SSI 3. Total, Federal, and State SSI Benefits and Administration, 1974– 20021
[In millions of dollars]

Calendar
Year
Total Benefits Federal
Payments
State Supplementation Administrative Costs
(fiscal year)
2002 2 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally
Administered
State
Administered
1974 $8,183 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975 18,817 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976 18,372 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977 17,950 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 526
1978 17,462 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979 17,200 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 610
1980 17,358 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981 17,157 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 718
1982 16,900 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 779
1983 16,986 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 830
1984 17,958 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985 18,492 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 953
1986 19,830 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,022
1987 20,510 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 976
1988 20,965 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 975
1989 21,733 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,051
1990 22,847 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991 24,468 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,257
1992 28,508 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,538
1993 30,573 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,467
1994 31,412 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,775
1995 32,613 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,973
1996 33,013 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,949
1997 32,564 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055
1998 33,349 30,216 26,405 3,812 3,003 808 2,304
1999 33,392 30,923 26,805 4,154 3,301 853 2,493
2000 32,976 31,564 27,290 4,274 3,381 893 2,401
2001 33,584 33,061 28,706 4,355 3,460 895 2,498
2002 34,567 34,567 29,899 4,668 3,820 848 2,522

1Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year
2Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1 for calendar years
Source:Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003, (Data available online at http://wwwssagov/statistics).


Table SSI 4. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974– 2002

Calendar
Year
Total1 Federal
Payments
State Supplementation
2002
Dollars
Current
Dollars
Total Federally
Administered
State
Administered
1974 $466 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975 360 112 92 66 69 45
1976 357 118 99 68 71 50
1977 349 123 104 69 72 53
1978 341 128 108 72 74 56
1979 341 140 119 77 79 67
1980 345 158 133 89 91 76
1981 352 176 151 92 94 79
1982 360 191 166 96 97 93
1983 358 198 172 91 92 89
1984 366 211 187 93 93 93
1985 367 219 193 99 99 102
1986 380 232 202 107 108 101
1987 383 242 208 117 118 110
1988 385 253 219 118 118 118
1989 388 267 230 126 126 127
1990 389 283 244 132 131 136
1991 392 297 260 125 122 143
1992 421 328 292 124 121 147
1993 420 337 306 112 107 150
1994 411 338 310 105 99 152
1995 413 350 322 110 103 164
1996 412 359 333 108 103 145
1997 413 369 342 99 102 86
1998 418 379 350 103 104 102
1999 419 388 356 111 113 105
2000 411 393 360 113 114 109
2001 413 407 373 113 114 108
2002 415 415 383 129 129 128

1Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and State-only average benefit.
Note:The numerators for these averages are given in Table SSI 3 and the denominators are given in Table SSI 5. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using a calendar-year average CPI-U-X1 index.
Source:Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003.


Table SSI 5. Number of Persons Receiving SSI Payments by Type of Payment, 1974– 2002
(In thousands)

Date Total Federal State Supplementation
Total Federally Administered State Administered
Jan 1974 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec 1975 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec 1980 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec 1984 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec 1985 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec 1986 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec 1987 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec 1988 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec 1989 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec 1990 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec 1991 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec 1992 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec 1993 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec 1994 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec 1995 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec 1996 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec 1997 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657
Dec 1998 6,649 6,289 3,072 2,412 661
Dec 1999 6,641 6,275 3,116 2,441 675
Dec 2000 6,685 6,320 3,164 2,481 683
Dec 2001 6,776 6,410 3,209 2,520 689
Dec 2002 6,940 6,505 3,014 2,462 553

Source:Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003.


Table SSI 6. Characteristics of SSI Recipients, by Age, Sex, Earnings/Income,and Citizenship: Selected Years, 1980-2002

  1980 1985 1990 1992 1994 1997 2000 2002
  Total
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
under 18 5.5 5.5 6.4 10.0 13.4 13.5 12.8 13.5
18-64 40.9 45.4 50.9 52.3 53.0 54.8 56.7 57.2
65 or older 53.6 49.1 42.7 37.7 33.7 31.6 30.5 29.3
Sex
Male 34.4 35.2 37.2 39.0 41.3 41.3 41.5 42.0
Female 65.5 64.8 62.8 61.0 58.7 58.7 58.5 58.0
Selected Sources of Income
Earnings 3.2 3.8 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.1
Social Security 51.0 49.4 45.9 42.1 39.1 37.1 36.1 35.5
No other income 34.8 34.5 36.4 38.7 43.6 46.5 54.4 55.1
Noncitizens NA 5.1 9.0 10.8 11.7 10.0 10.5 10.4
Eligibility Category
Aged 43.6 36.4 30.2 26.4 23.3 21.0 19.5 18.4
Blind 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.1
Disabled 54.5 61.7 68.1 72.0 75.4 77.8 79.3 80.4
  Aged
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
65-69 14.0 14.9 19.4 20.7 20.5 17.6 15.6 15.3
70-79 51.5 45.6 41.3 42.5 44.3 48.4 50.0 49.1
80 or older 34.5 39.5 39.2 36.8 35.1 34.0 34.5 35.7
Sex
Male 27.3 25.5 25.1 25.6 26.8 27.8 29.0 29.9
Female 72.6 74.5 74.9 74.4 73.2 72.2 71.0 70.1
Noncitizens NA 9.7 19.4 25.4 30.0 27.0 28.5 29.2
  Blind and Disabled
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
18-64 80.2 77.7 80.0 82.0 83.4 83.6 83.8 83.8
65 or older 19.8 22.3 20.0 18.0 16.6 16.4 16.2 16.1
Sex1
Male 39.8 40.8 42.4 43.9 41.8 41.1 44.5 44.8
Female 60.2 59.2 57.6 56.1 58.2 58.9 55.5 55.2
Noncitizens NA 2.4 4.6 5.6 6.2 5.5 6.1 7.2
  Children
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 11.7 NA NA 16.0 15.8 15.8 15.5 16.1
5-9 20.9 NA NA 26.9 28.5 30.2 28.5 26.8
10-14 28.8 NA NA 30.6 32.7 34.6 36.2 36.9
15-17 21.7 NA NA 15.7 17.3 19.4 19.8 20.2
18-212 16.8 14.3 9.3 10.8 5.7
Sex
Male NA NA NA 62.0 63.0 62.9 63.8 64.3
Female NA NA NA 38.0 37.0 37.1 36.2 35.7

1For 1980-1992 male-female classification reflects all blind and disabled, both children and adults; thereafter, it is based on adults only.
2In this table, students 18-21 are classified as children prior to 1998.
Note:Data are for December of the year.
Source:Social Security Administration,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003and prior years.


Table SSI 7. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments and State Supplementary Payments,Calendar Year 2002
(In thousands)

State Total Total Federal Federal SSI State Supplementation
Federally Administered State Administered
Total $34,566,844 $33,720,491 $29,898,765 $3,820,234 $847,845
Alabama 730,105 729,691 729,691 414
Alaska 99,520 43,872 43,872 55,648
Arizona 406,848 406,474 406,474 374
Arkansas 354,418 354,418 354,412 6
California 7,230,494 7,230,494 4,460,666 2,769,828
Colorado 331,543 243,234 243,234 88,309
Connecticut 319,446 236,055 236,055 83,391
Delaware 56,374 56,374 55,350 1,024
District of Columbia 102,083 102,082 98,518 3,564
Florida 1,824,115 1,814,407 1,814,392 15 9,707
Georgia 854,414 854,414 854,411 3
Hawaii 110,657 110,658 98,495 12,163
Idaho 94,024 86,514 86,514 7,510
Illinois 1,275,885 1,246,787 1,246,787 29,098
Indiana 427,283 423,503 423,503 3,780
Iowa 191,069 175,290 172,391 2,899 15,779
Kansas 164,412 164,412 164,412
Kentucky 821,504 802,898 802,898 18,606
Louisiana 761,420 760,944 760,944 476
Maine 138,104 130,762 130,762 7,342
Maryland 442,285 434,761 434,752 9 7,524
Massachusetts 849,101 849,101 683,294 165,807
Michigan 1,097,109 1,065,066 1,039,390 25,676 32,043
Minnesota 389,321 303,434 303,424 10 85,888
Mississippi 542,847 542,847 542,845 2
Missouri 541,328 515,040 515,040 26,288
Montana 62,959 62,959 62,136 823
Nebraska 99,177 92,870 92,870 6,307
Nevada 132,907 132,908 127,780 5,128
New Hampshire 67,382 55,785 55,785 11,597
New Jersey 721,272 721,272 640,486 80,786
New Mexico 217,053 216,882 216,882 171
New York 3,407,767 3,407,767 2,849,925 557,842
North Carolina 937,938 797,987 797,987 139,951
North Dakota 33,716 31,784 31,784 1,932
Ohio 1,189,946 1,189,946 1,189,936 10
Oklahoma 365,295 327,859 327,859 37,436
Oregon 282,957 262,681 262,681 20,276
Pennsylvania 1,550,661 1,550,660 1,406,743 143,917
Rhode Island 146,253 146,253 121,290 24,963
South Carolina 465,841 454,062 454,062 11,779
South Dakota 54,751 52,251 52,246 5 2,501
Tennessee 705,106 705,106 705,106 0.286
Texas 1,799,263 1,797,304 1,797,304 1,959
Utah 97,817 97,816 97,756 60
Vermont 55,462 55,462 46,161 9,301
Virginia 593,731 574,659 574,659 19,072
Washington 539,989 539,761 523,340 16,421 228
West Virginia 348,553 348,553 348,553
Wisconsin 508,120 386,334 386,334 121,786
Wyoming 25,353 24,680 24,680 673
Other: N. Mariana Islands 3,358 3,358 3,358

Source:Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003.


Table SSI 8. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 2002
[In percent]

State Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-64 Rate for Adults 65 & Over
1979 2002 Percent Change 1979-02 1979 2002 Percent Change 1979-02 1979 2002 Percent Change 1979-02
Alabama 3.6 3.6 1 1.8 3.5 91 21.0 6.9 -67
Alaska 0.8 1.5 95 0.5 1.5 178 14.0 6.0 -57
Arizona 1.1 1.6 44 0.9 1.6 80 5.0 3.2 -36
Arkansas 3.5 3.1 -11 1.9 3.0 60 17.1 5.8 -66
California 3.0 3.2 6 2.1 2.5 22 16.4 13.3 -19
Colorado 1.1 1.2 9 0.8 1.1 43 6.7 3.2 -52
Connecticut 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.5 138 2.7 2.6 -4
Delaware 1.2 1.6 34 0.9 1.4 49 5.4 2.3 -58
District of Columbia 2.3 3.5 54 1.9 3.1 61 8.6 6.7 -22
Florida 1.8 2.4 35 1.1 1.9 67 6.2 4.8 -23
Georgia 2.9 2.3 -20 1.9 2.1 11 17.7 6.8 -62
Hawaii 1.1 1.7 62 0.7 1.5 117 7.6 5.1 -33
Idaho 0.8 1.4 77 0.6 1.6 150 3.8 2.0 -47
Illinois 1.1 2.0 85 1.0 2.0 111 4.3 3.8 -11
Indiana 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.6 162 3.3 1.7 -49
Iowa 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.6 158 3.5 1.7 -51
Kansas 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.4 122 3.5 1.9 -45
Kentucky 2.5 4.3 69 1.8 4.4 146 12.5 7.0 -44
Louisiana 3.4 3.7 10 2.0 3.5 72 20.1 7.8 -61
Maine 2.0 2.4 23 1.4 2.7 94 8.6 3.1 -64
Maryland 1.2 1.6 39 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 4.0 -26
Massachusetts 2.2 2.6 16 1.3 2.5 95 10.8 5.6 -48
Michigan 1.3 2.1 67 1.1 2.3 115 5.9 3.0 -49
Minnesota 0.8 1.3 60 0.6 1.3 136 3.7 2.6 -30
Mississippi 4.5 4.4 -2 2.4 4.0 65 26.0 10.3 -60
Missouri 1.8 2.0 14 1.1 2.1 91 7.9 2.9 -63
Montana 0.9 1.6 80 0.7 1.7 136 3.8 2.0 -47
Nebraska 0.9 1.3 48 0.6 1.3 103 3.4 1.7 -50
Nevada 0.8 1.3 55 0.5 1.2 126 5.9 3.3 -44
New Hampshire 0.6 1.0 72 0.4 1.1 150 2.5 1.2 -53
New Jersey 1.1 1.7 49 0.9 1.4 63 4.7 4.5 -4
New Mexico 2.0 2.6 32 1.4 2.4 75 12.4 6.9 -44
New York 2.1 3.3 56 1.6 2.8 76 8.3 9.0 9
North Carolina 2.4 2.3 -4 1.6 2.0 27 13.6 5.4 -60
North Dakota 1.0 1.3 31 0.6 1.3 128 5.1 2.2 -56
Ohio 1.1 2.1 89 1.0 2.3 132 4.2 2.4 -42
Oklahoma 2.3 2.1 -9 1.3 2.1 58 11.6 3.8 -67
Oregon 0.9 1.6 86 0.7 1.7 143 3.3 2.8 -15
Pennsylvania 1.4 2.4 71 1.1 2.5 123 5.0 3.4 -31
Rhode Island 1.6 2.7 70 1.1 2.6 141 6.4 4.9 -24
South Carolina 2.7 2.6 -3 1.8 2.3 29 17.0 5.6 -67
South Dakota 1.1 1.7 49 0.7 1.6 122 5.0 3.0 -40
Tennessee 2.9 2.8 -2 1.9 2.7 44 14.8 5.5 -63
Texas 1.9 2.0 6 1.0 1.6 68 12.7 7.5 -41
Utah 0.6 0.9 64 0.5 1.0 96 3.0 1.9 -37
Vermont 1.8 2.1 19 1.3 2.1 60 8.1 3.6 -55
Virginia 1.5 1.8 20 1.0 1.6 57 8.5 4.6 -46
Washington 1.2 1.7 47 1.0 1.8 84 4.8 3.6 -25
West Virginia 2.1 4.1 92 1.9 4.7 153 8.0 4.6 -42
Wisconsin 1.4 1.6 11 1.0 1.6 67 6.5 2.3 -65
Wyoming 0.4 1.1 162 0.3 1.2 314 2.7 1.6 -42
Total 1.9 2.4 30 1.3 2.2 75 9.0 5.6 -38

Note:Recipiency rates for 2002 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the estimated population in the respective age group as of the month of July; calculations by DHHS. The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year.
Source:Social Security Administration,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online athttp://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).


Table SSI 9. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years, 1975– 2002
[In percent]

State 1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 19942 19962 20022
Alabama 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.6
Alaska 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.5
Arizona 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.6
Arkansas 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.1
California 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2
Colorado 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.2
Connecticut 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.5
Delaware 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6
District of Columbia 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.5
Florida 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.4 2.4
Georgia 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.3
Hawaii 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7
Idaho 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.4
Illinois 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.0
Indiana 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5
Iowa 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4
Kansas 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.4
Kentucky 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.4 4.3
Louisiana 3.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.2 3.7
Maine 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.4
Maryland 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.6
Massachusetts 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.7 2.6
Michigan 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.2 2.2 2.1
Minnesota 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3
Mississippi 5.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.2 4.4
Missouri 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.0
Montana 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6
Nebraska 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3
Nevada 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.3
New Hampshire 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
New Jersey 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.7
New Mexico 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.6
New York 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.3
North Carolina 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.3
North Dakota 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3
Ohio 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.1
Oklahoma 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.1
Oregon 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.6
Pennsylvania 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.4
Rhode Island 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.6 2.7
South Carolina 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.0 2.6
South Dakota 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.7
Tennessee 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.4 2.8
Texas 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.0
Utah 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.9
Vermont 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1
Virginia 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.8
Washington 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7
West Virginia 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.5 3.8 4.1
Wisconsin 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.6
Wyoming 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.1
Total1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.4

1The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, and 1992, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, and 71 respectively.
2For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year. For 1994-2002 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.
Source:Social Security Administration,Social Security Bulletin· Annual Statistical Supplement· 2003, and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online athttp://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/)


1In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that the IFA (or a residual functional capacity assessment) that applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments.

2The GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the IFA for children was initiated.

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