Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2004. Indicator 9. Long-term Receipt

04/27/2005

Figure IND 9. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients, by Years of Receipt Between 1991 and 2000
Figure IND 9. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients, by Years of Receipt Between 1991 and 2000
Source: Unpublished data from the PSID public release data files, 1992-2001.

  • Among all persons receiving AFDC/TANF at some point in the ten-year period ending in 2000, about half (51 percent) received assistance in only one or two of these years. Less than one third (31 percent) received AFDC/TANF in three to five years, and less than one fifth (18 percent) received AFDC/TANF during more than five of the ten years.
  • A larger percentage of child recipients experienced long-term receipt (some receipt in at least six of the ten years) and a smaller percentage experienced short-term receipt in all three time periods relative to the percentages for all recipients, as shown in Table IND 9.
  • Longer-term welfare receipt was much less common during the 1990s compared to earlier decades. Less than 4 percent of those with some AFDC/TANF assistance between 1991 and 2000 received at least one assistance payment in nine or ten years of the period, compared to 12 percent and 13 percent of AFDC recipients in the earlier two time periods.
  • In the two ten-year time periods between 1971-1990, there was a large percentage difference in short-term AFDC receipt between all black and non-black recipients. In the ten-year period ending in 2000, this percentage difference was much smaller, with 49 percent of blacks and 53 percent of non-blacks receiving AFDC/TANF in only one or two years.

Table IND 9: Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients Across Three Ten-Year Time Periods by Years of Receipt, Race, and Age

All Races:
  All Recipients Child Recipients 0-5
  1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 1971-1980   1981-1990 1991-2000
Years received AFDC/TANF:
1-2 Years 44.0 44.8 50.9 36.3  36.1  37.9
3-5 Years 30.1 26.5 30.9 28.1  24.1  33.9
6-8 Years 12.5 16.4 14.5 17.9   20.5 23.3
9-10 Years 13.3 12.2 3.8 17.7   19.4 4.9
Black:
  All Recipients Child Recipients 0-5
1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 1971-1980   1981-1990 1991-2000
Years received AFDC/TANF:
1-2 Years 30.8 35.8 48.6 24.2   26.9 37.7
3-5 Years 31.9 28.4 24.2 28.4  25.7  28.2
6-8 Years 18.6 17.5 NA 24.7  18.7 NA
9-10 Years 18.7 18.4 NA 22.8   28.7 NA
Non-Black:
  All Recipients Child Recipients 0-5
1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 1971-1980   1981-1990 1991-2000
Years received AFDC/TANF:
1-2 Years 51.0 51.3 52.6 45.0   43.0 38.2
3-5 Years 29.2 25.2 36.0 27.8   22.9 38.7
6-8 Years 9.4 15.7 NA 13.1   21.8 NA
9-10 Years 10.5 7.9 NA 14.1  12.3  NA

Note: The base for the percentages consists of individuals receiving at least $1 of AFDC/TANF in any year in the ten-year period. Child recipients are defined by age in the first year of the 10-year period. This indicator measures years of recipiency over the specified ten-year time periods and does not take into account years of recipiency that may have occurred before or after each ten-year period.

Race categories include those of Hispanic ethnicity. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians, and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the estimates for non-black persons but are not shown separately. Data are not available (NA) separately by race for longer periods of cumulative receipt (6 or more years) in the most recent 10-year period.

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID public release data files, 1992-2001.

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