Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2004. Indicator 2. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

04/27/2005

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month, by Program: 2001

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants in that Month, by Program: 2001

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • In 2001, 61 percent of individuals who received TANF, 56 percent of individuals who received food stamps, and 37 percent of individuals who received SSI were in families with at least one person in the labor force, either part-time or full-time.
  • About one-third of TANF and food stamp recipients lived in families with at least one fulltime worker in 2001, while approximately one-quarter had only a part-time labor force participant. In contrast, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participant.
  • As shown in Table IND 2a, young children (under age six) in households receiving TANF, food stamps, and SSI were more likely to live with at least one full-time worker than were older children (ages 11-15) in such recipient households.
  • The percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with at least one full-time worker increased from 19 percent in 1993 to 35 percent in 2001, as shown in Table IND 2b.

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race/Ethnicity, and Age: 2001

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT At Least One FT Worker
TANF All Persons 38.7 26.0 35.3
Non-Hispanic White 35.9 25.8 38.3
Non-Hispanic Black 44.1 27.3 28.6
Hispanic 37.7 24.0 38.3
Children Ages 0-5 38.1 23.2 38.7
Children Ages 6-10 41.0 26.4 32.6
Children Ages 11-15 39.6 27.5 32.9
Women Ages 16-64 40.1 26.1 33.8
Men Ages 16-64 30.1 30.4 39.5
Adults Age 65 and over 66.3 16.5 17.2
FOOD STAMPS All Persons      
  44.0 23.2 32.8
Non-Hispanic White 46.7 23.5 29.8
Non-Hispanic Black 43.7 24.0 32.3
Hispanic 39.1 20.8 40.1
Children Ages 0-5 34.4 24.1 41.5
Children Ages 6-10 34.8 25.0 40.2
Children Ages 11-15 38.4 25.7 35.9
Women Ages 16-64 45.7 24.2 30.2
Men Ages 16-64 43.6 24.4 32.0
Adults Age 65 and over 88.9 6.4 4.7
SSI All Persons 63.5 8.7 27.8
Non-Hispanic White 69.7 8.1 22.3
Non-Hispanic Black 62.7 10.3 27.0
Hispanic 52.2 8.8 39.0
Children Ages 0-5 32.1 14.0 53.9
Children Ages 6-10 31.9 17.5 50.5
Children Ages 11-15 35.5 14.1 50.4
Women Ages 16-64 72.8 8.9 18.2
Men Ages 16-64 64.1 8.0 27.9
Adults Age 65 and over 65.9 6.6 27.5

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants 1993-2001

  No one in LF At least one in LF, No one FT At least one FT worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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