Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2003. Notes

03/01/2003

  1. The earnings of those in unsubsidized employment would be correctly captured as income from work in national surveys. Any welfare benefits associated with work experience, community service programs or other work activities, however, would be counted as income from welfare in most national surveys, a classification incompatible with the proposed definition.
  2. While TRIM-adjusted CPS data for 2001 are not yet available, non-adjusted estimates from the Annual March Demographic Supplement to the CPS indicate no change in the level of dependence between 2001 and 2002.
  3. The effects of selected non-cash benefits (food and housing) and taxes are shown separately in Figure ECON 4 in Chapter III. Prior to 1993, taxes increased poverty. Since 1993, taxes, including the refunds through the Earned Income Tax Credit, have caused reductions in poverty.
  4. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska natives and Asian/Pacific Islanders are included in the totals but are not shown separately.
  5. Family is generally defined as following the broad Census Bureau definition of family — all persons residing together that are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.

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