Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2003. Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 2. Employment Among the Low-skilled

03/01/2003

Figure WORK 2. Percentage of All Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed: 1969-2001

Source: ASPE tabulations of March CPS data.

  • Employment rates for women with a high school education or less dropped in 2001, following several years of rising employment, particularly among black and Hispanic women. Low-skilled white women continued to have the highest employment level (67 percent in 2001) among the three racial/ethnic groups.
  • Employment levels for white and Hispanic men with no more than a high school education have hovered close to 85 percent for close to two decades. In contrast, employment levels for low-skilled black men have varied over the same period. Between 1968 and 1983, employment rates for black men with no more than high school education fell by 20 percentage points. Since 1992, these rates have remained fairly stable at around 71 percent.
  • As shown in Figure and Table WORK 2, employment levels for black men with a high school education or less were 6 percentage points higher than those of similarly educated black women in 2001. In contrast, there was a 17 percentage point difference in employment levels of white men and white women with a high school education or less, and a 26 percentage point difference between similarly educated Hispanic men and Hispanic women.

Table WORK 2. Percentage of All Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed at Any Time: 1969-2001

Note: All data include both full and partial year employment for the given calendar year. Race categories include those of Hispanic origin for all years. Hispanic origin was not available until 1975.
Source: ASPE tabulations of March CPS data.

  Men Women
Note: All data include both full and partial year employment for the given calendar year. Race categories include
those of Hispanic origin for all years. Hispanic origin was not available until 1975.
Source: ASPE tabulations of March CPS data.
  White Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic
1968 92.8 89.9 N/A 55.8 65.8 N/A
1969 92.1 89.2 N/A 56.1 64.9 N/A
1971 90.9 86.1 N/A 55.2 59.4 N/A
1972 91.1 84.3 N/A 55.6 58.1 N/A
1975 88.2 78.8 86.2 58.3 57.2 49.7
1977 88.3 78.6 89.8 59.8 57.4 51.4
1979 88.6 78.5 89.4 62.3 58.7 55.0
1980 88.0 75.3 87.4 62.3 57.4 53.0
1981 87.3 74.4 87.9 62.3 57.7 52.1
1982 85.4 71.3 85.4 60.7 56.2 50.6
1983 84.8 69.9 84.6 61.4 55.3 50.8
1984 86.1 71.6 83.9 62.9 58.4 53.1
1985 85.7 74.5 84.1 63.7 59.4 52.4
1986 86.3 74.2 86.7 64.4 60.3 53.0
1987 86.6 73.9 85.6 65.8 59.9 54.0
1988 86.5 74.1 87.8 66.4 61.3 54.6
1989 86.6 74.0 86.2 67.2 60.9 55.8
1990 87.4 75.6 85.4 66.8 60.4 55.0
1991 86.2 73.9 85.0 66.5 60.7 54.6
1992 85.5 71.4 83.7 65.9 57.8 53.3
1993 84.4 71.1 83.5 66.1 59.9 52.2
1994 84.7 69.3 83.2 66.6 60.7 53.3
1995 85.5 70.2 83.3 67.0 59.7 53.9
1996 85.6 70.0 84.0 67.7 63.6 55.4
1997 85.3 71.8 85.0 67.7 66.1 56.9
1998 85.4 71.9 85.5 67.9 66.8 57.1
1999 85.0 72.2 86.4 68.9 68.3 58.8
2000 85.1 72.9 86.5 68.6 67.4 61.0
2001 83.9 70.6 85.5 67.4 64.6 59.2

 

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