Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2002. Supplemental Security Income

03/01/2002

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons. To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability. Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18, unmarried, and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements. Individuals and married couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels, which were $532 for an individual and $789 for a married couple in fiscal year 2000. SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

SSI law requires that SSI applicants file for all other money benefits for which they may be entitled. Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort” — after evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.” (The Social Security Administration, which administers the SSI program, works with recipients and helps them get any other benefits for which they are eligible.) As of December 2000, 36 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security benefits; Social Security benefits are the single highest source of income for SSI recipients.

No individual could receive both SSI payments and AFDC benefits; if eligible for both, the individual was required to choose which benefit to receive. Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit. The PRWORA does not specifically prohibit an individual’s receipt of both TANF benefits and SSI; states have complete authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels.

With the exception of California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash that is included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps. If all household members receive SSI, they do not need to meet the Food Stamp Program financial eligibility standards to participate in the program because they are categorically eligible. If SSI beneficiaries live in households where other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Recent Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress are likely to affect Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation and expenditures. Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibits SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability. This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment. It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

The PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of providing benefits for severely disabled children while preventing children without serious impairments from receiving benefits. First, the act replaced the former law “comparable severity” test with a new definition of childhood disability based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment. Second, it discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which authorized subjective judgment to determine children’s eligibility for SSI. Third, it eliminated references to “maladaptive behavior” in the Listings of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function). The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996). Current beneficiaries receiving benefits due to an IFA or maladaptive behavior listing received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case is redetermined. All those currently receiving benefits are subject to redetermination using the new eligibility criteria by February 28, 1998 (per P.L. 105-33, enacted August 5, 1997).

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits. Essentially, qualified aliens (including legal immigrants) are barred from SSI. Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which grandfathered immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA.

Several provisions aimed at reducing SSI fraud and improving recovery of overpayments were enacted in 1999, as part of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-169). Other legislation enacted in 1999 provides additional work incentives for disabled beneficiaries of SSI.

SSI Program Data

The following set of tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables SSI-1 through SSI-5 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program;
  • Table SSI-6 presents demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload; and
  • Tables SSI 7-9 present state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 2000.

From 1990 to 1995, the program increased from 4.8 million beneficiaries to 6.5 million beneficiaries, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year. Since 1995, the number of beneficiaries has stabilized, fluctuating between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons. In December 2000, there were nearly 6.6 million beneficiaries. Table SSI 1 presents information on the number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 2000. In addition to data on the total number of SSI recipients, Table SSI 1 also shows recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adult age 18-64, and adult age 65 or older). See also Table IND 9a and Table IND 9b in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table SSI 1. The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to 1.3 million persons in December 2000. At the same time there has been a strong growth in disabled beneficiaries, from 1.7 million in December 1974 to 5.3 million in December 2000. Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly during the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 340,000 in December 1990 to 955,000 in December 1996. The number of disabled children fell in the next three years, and appeared to stabilize at 847,000 in 1999 and 2000. 1

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the General Accounting Office (GAO). GAO concluded that three groups – adults with mental impairments, children, and non-citizens – accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth in the early 1990s. The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case2, expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.

To counteract this rapid growth, Congress enacted changes to the SSI program in 1996, as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), tightening eligibility requirements for disabled children applying to the program and reviewing eligibility of those already receiving SSI.

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 2000

Figure SSI 1. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 2000

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).

Table SSI 1. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments 1974 – 2000 [In thousands]

Date Total Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
Aged Blind and Disabled Children Adults
Total Blind Disabled Age 18-64 65 or Older
Dec 1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 711 1,503 2,422
Dec 1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 107 1,699 2,508
Dec 1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 125 1,714 2,397
Dec 1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 147 1,738 2,353
Dec 1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 166 1,747 2,304
Dec 1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 177 1,727 2,246
Dec 1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 190 1,731 2,221
Dec 1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 195 1,703 2,121
Dec 1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 192 1,655 2,011
Dec 1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 198 1,700 2,003
Dec 1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 212 1,780 2,037
Dec 1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 227 1,879 2,031
Dec 1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 241 2,010 2,018
Dec 1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 251 2,119 2,015
Dec 1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 255 2,203 2,006
Dec 1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 265 2,302 2,026
Dec 1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 309 2,450 2,059
Dec 1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 397 2,642 2,080
Dec 1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 556 2,910 2,100
Dec 1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 723 3,148 2,113
Dec 1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 841 3,335 2,119
Dec 1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 917 3,482 2,115
Dec 1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 955 3,568 2,090
Dec 1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 880 3,562 2,054
Dec 1998 6,566 1,332 5,234 80 5,154 887 3,646 2,033
Dec 1999 6,557 1,308 5,249 79 5,169 847 3,691 2,019
Dec 2000 6,602 1,289 5,312 79 5,234 847 3,744 2,011

1Includes students 18-21 in 1974 only.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).

Table SSI 2. SSI Recipiency Rates, 1974 – 2000 [In percentages]

Date  All Recipients as a Percent of Total Population1 Adults 18-64 as a Percent of 18-64 Population1 Child Recipients as a Percent of All Children1 Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
All Persons 65 & Older1 All Elderly Poor2 Pretransfer Elderly Poor3
Dec 1974 1.9 1.2 0.1 10.8 78.5 NA
Dec 1975 2.0 1.3 0.2 10.9 75.6 NA
Dec 1976 1.9 1.3 0.2 10.2 72.4 NA
Dec 1977 1.9 1.3 0.2 9.7 74.1 NA
Dec 1978 1.9 1.3 0.3 9.3 71.5 NA
Dec 1979 1.8 1.3 0.3 8.8 61.3 66.8
Dec 1980 1.8 1.2 0.3 8.6 57.5 64.7
Dec 1981 1.7 1.2 0.3 8.0 55.0 63.3
Dec 1982 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.4 53.6 62.3
Dec 1983 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.3 55.2 61.9
Dec 1984 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.2 61.2 66.3
Dec 1985 1.7 1.3 0.4 7.1 58.7 64.5
Dec 1986 1.8 1.3 0.4 6.9 57.9 63.4
Dec 1987 1.8 1.4 0.4 6.7 56.5 64.7
Dec 1988 1.8 1.5 0.4 6.6 57.6 64.3
Dec 1989 1.9 1.5 0.4 6.5 60.3 64.6
Dec 1990 1.9 1.6 0.5 6.5 56.3 63.3
Dec 1991 2.0 1.7 0.6 6.5 55.0 61.1
Dec 1992 2.2 1.9 0.8 6.5 53.5 59.8
Dec 1993 2.3 2.0 1.1 6.4 56.3 63.3
Dec 1994 2.4 2.1 1.2 6.4 57.9 65.6
Dec 1995 2.5 2.2 1.3 6.4 63.7 71.4
Dec 1996 2.5 2.2 1.4 6.2 61.0 69.3
Dec 1997 2.4 2.2 1.3 6.0 60.8 69.1
Dec 1998 2.4 2.2 1.3 5.9 60.0 69.1
Dec 1999 2.4 2.2 1.2 5.8 63.7 72.4
Dec 2000 2.3 2.1 1.2 5.7 59.8 66.9

1Population numbers used for the denominators are Census resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year; see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106 and Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to July 1, 2000, Internet release date January 2, 2001 and the 2000 Decennial Census (Available online at http://www.census.gov).

2For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-214.

3The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.

Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table SSI 1. Rates computed by DHHS.

Source: 1994 Green Book and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 2000," Current Population Reports, Series P60-214, and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Table SSI 3. Total, Federal, and State SSI Benefits and Administration, 1974 – 20001[In millions of dollars]

Calendar Year Total Benefits Federal Payments State Supplementation
20002Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered  Administrative Costs
(fiscal year)
1974 $17,405 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975 18,011 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976 17,585 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977 17,182 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 526
1978 16,715 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979 16,464 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 610
1980 16,615 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981 16,423 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 718
1982 16,177 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 779
1983 16,259 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 830
1984 17,190 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985 17,701 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 953
1986 18,981 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,022
1987 19,632 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 976
1988 20,067 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 975
1989 20,803 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,051
1990 21,869 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991 23,421 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,257
1992 27,288 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,538
1993 29,264 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,467
1994 30,067 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,775
1995 31,217 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,973
1996 31,600 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,949
1997 31,170 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055
1998 31,922 30,216 26,405 3,812 3,003 808 2,304
1999 31,962 30,923 26,805 4,154 3,301 853 2,493
2000 31,564 31,564 27,290 4,274 3,381 893 2,401

1Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year.

2Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1 for calendar years.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).

Table SSI 4. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 2000

Calendar Year Total1 Federal Payments State Supplementation
2000 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974 $475 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975 338 112 92 66 69 45
1980 321 158 133 89 91 76
1984 349 211 187 93 93 93
1985 349 219 193 99 99 102
1986 365 232 202 107 108 101
1987 365 242 208 117 118 110
1988 365 253 219 118 118 118
1989 369 267 230 126 126 127
1990 368 283 244 132 131 136
1991 375 297 260 125 122 143
1992 402 328 292 124 121 147
1993 403 337 306 112 107 150
1994 393 338 310 105 99 152
1995 397 350 322 110 103 164
1996 394 359 333 108 103 145
1997 398 369 342 99 102 86
1998 402 379 350 103 104 102
1999 402 388 356 111 113 105
2000 393 393 360 113 114 109

1Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and State- only average benefit.

Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table SSI 3 and the denominators are given in Table SSI 5. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using the monthly values of the CPI-U-X1 index.

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001. 

Table SSI 5. Number of Persons Receiving SSI Payments by Type of Payment, 1974 – 2000 (in thousands)

Date Total Federal State Supplementation
Total Federally Administered State Administered
Jan 1974 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec 1975 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec 1980 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec 1984 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec 1985 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec 1986 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec 1987 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec 1988 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec 1989 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec 1990 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec 1991 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec 1992 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec 1993 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec 1994 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec 1995 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec 1996 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec 1997 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657
Dec 1998 6,649 6,289 3,072 2,412 661
Dec 1999 6,641 6,275 3,116 2,441 675
Dec 2000 6,685 6,320 3,164 2,481 683

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001.

Table SSI 6. Characteristics of SSI Recipients, by Age, Sex, Earnings/Income, and Citizenship: Selected Years, 1980-2000

  1980 1985 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000
Total
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  • under 18
5.5 5.5 6.4 10.0 13.4 14.4 13.5 12.8
  • 18-64
40.9 45.4 50.9 52.3 53.0 54.0 55.5 56.7
  • 65 or older
53.6 49.1 42.7 37.7 33.7 31.6 31.0 30.5
Sex
  • Male
34.4 35.2 37.2 39.0 41.3 41.9 41.3 41.5
  • Female
65.5 64.8 62.8 61.0 58.7 58.1 58.7 58.5
Selected Sources of Income
  • Earnings
3.2 3.8 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.4
  • Social Security
51.0 49.4 45.9 42.1 39.1 37.0 36.5 36.1
  • No other income
34.8 34.5 36.4 38.7 43.6 46.2 47.3 54.4
Noncitizens NA 5.1 9.0 10.8 11.7 11.0 10.2 10.5

Eligibility Category

  • Aged
43.6 36.4 30.2 26.4 23.3 21.4 20.3 19.5
  • Blind
1.9 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2
  • Disabled
54.5 61.7 68.1 72.0 75.4 77.4 78.5 79.3
Aged
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  • 65-69
14.0 14.9 19.4 20.7 20.5 19.1 16.6 15.6
  • 70-79
51.5 45.6 41.3 42.5 44.3 47.0 49.4 50.0
  • 80 or older
34.5 39.5 39.2 36.8 35.1 33.9 34.1 34.5
Sex
  • Male
27.3 25.5 25.1 25.6 26.8 27.6 28.2 29.0
  • Female
72.6 74.5 74.9 74.4 73.2 72.4 71.8 71.0
Noncitizens NA 9.7 19.4 25.4 30.0 29.5 27.4 28.5
Blind and Disabled
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  • 18-64
80.2 77.7 80.0 82.0 83.4 83.8 83.9 83.8
  • 65 or older
19.8 22.3 20.0 18.0 16.6 16.2 16.1 16.2

Sex1

  • Male
39.8 40.8 42.4 43.9 41.8 41.4 41.0 44.5
  • Female
60.2 59.2 57.6 56.1 58.2 58.6 59.0 55.5
Noncitizens NA 2.4 4.6 5.6 6.2 5.9 5.8 6.1
Children
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  • Under 5
11.7 NA NA 16.0 15.8 14.5 14.8 15.5
  • 5-9
20.9 NA NA 26.9 28.5 28.1 29.8 28.5
  • 10-14
28.8 NA NA 30.6 32.7 32.8 35.4 36.2
  • 15-17
21.7 NA NA 15.7 17.3 18.4 19.9 19.8
  • 18-212
16.8 14.3 9.3 10.8 5.7 6.2

Sex

  • Male
NA NA NA 62.0 63.0 63.4 63.3 63.8
  • Female
NA NA NA 38.0 37.0 36.6 36.7 36.2

Note: Data are for December of the year.

1For 1980-1992 male-female classification reflects all blind and disabled, both children and adults; thereafter, it is based on adults only.

2In this table, students 18-21 are classified as children prior to 1998.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001 and prior years.

Table SSI 7. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 2000 [In thousands]

State

Total  Total Federal Federal SSI State Supplementation
Federally Administered State Administered
Total $31,564,439 $30,671,725 $27,290,248 $3,381,451 $892,740
Alabama 659,218 658,648 658,648 570
Alaska 87,927 36,717 36,717 51,210
Arizona 355,324 355,074 355,074 250
Arkansas 332,628 332,628 332,628
California 6,385,553 6,385,553 4,041,417 2,344,136
Colorado 302,774 228,481 228,481 74,293
Connecticut 303,230 215,865 215,865 87,365
Delaware 50,172 50,172 49,227 945
District of Columbia 92,673 92,673 89,376 3,297
Florida 1,648,742 1,620,866 1,620,862 4 27,876
Georgia 785,363 785,363 785,363
Hawaii 103,603 103,603 90,874 12,729
Idaho 84,444 76,065 76,065 8,379
Illinois 1,202,928 1,174,336 1,174,336 28,592
Indiana 386,363 381,786 381,786 4,577
Iowa 174,581 157,905 155,214 2,691 16,676
Kansas 151,084 151,084 151,084
Kentucky 757,988 740,790 740,790 17,198
Louisiana 715,603 715,106 715,106 497
Maine 125,002 115,902 115,902 9,100
Maryland 407,041 400,089 400,086 3 6,952
Massachusetts 807,328 807,328 641,376 165,952
Michigan 1,083,155 988,272 960,707 27,565 94,883
Minnesota 348,412 271,952 271,952 76,460
Mississippi 512,112 512,112 512,111 1
Missouri 496,340 470,986 470,986 25,354
Montana 57,334 57,334 56,523 811
Nebraska 91,360 85,105 85,105 6,255
Nevada 108,413 108,413 103,556 4,857
New Hampshire 60,673 48,825 48,825 11,848
New Jersey 672,255 672,255 593,624 78,631
New Mexico 193,487 193,252 193,252 235
New York 3,197,466 3,197,466 2,647,827 549,639
North Carolina 855,219 731,568 731,568 123,651
North Dakota 32,022 29,797 29,797 2,225
Ohio 1,114,044 1,114,044 1,114,042 2
Oklahoma 339,486 302,057 302,057 37,429
Oregon 248,551 228,109 228,109 20,442
Pennsylvania 1,367,077 1,367,077 1,237,548 129,529
Rhode Island 130,379 130,379 106,976 23,403
South Carolina 442,810 428,933 428,933 13,877
South Dakota 50,516 48,363 48,358 5 2,153
Tennessee 664,461 664,461 664,459 2
Texas 1,574,945 1,574,945 1,574,945
Utah 87,074 87,074 87,023 51
Vermont 51,487 51,487 42,478 9,009
Virginia 555,450 535,180 535,180 20,270
Washington 484,655 484,345 456,107 28,238 310
West Virginia 318,198 318,198 318,198
Wisconsin 480,216 357,084 357,084 123,132
Wyoming 24,125 23,444 23,444 681
Other: N. Mariana Islands 3,174 3,174 3,174

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001.

Table SSI 8. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 2000 [In percentages]

State

Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-64 Rate for Adults 65 & Over
1979 2000 Percent Change
1979-00
1979 2000 Percent Change
1979-00
1979 2000 Percent Change
1979-00
Total 1.9 2.3 24 1.3 2.2 75 9.0 5.7 -37
Alabama 3.6 3.6 1 1.8 3.3 80 21.0 7.7 -63
Alaska 0.8 1.4 82 0.5 1.4 159 14.0 5.9 -58
Arizona 1.1 1.6 44 0.9 1.5 69 5.0 3.3 -34
Arkansas 3.5 3.2 -9 1.9 2.9 55 17.1 6.6 -61
California 3.0 3.2 6 2.1 2.5 22 16.4 13.2 -20
Colorado 1.1 1.2 9 0.8 1.2 56 6.7 3.3 -51
Connecticut 0.8 1.4 87 0.6 1.5 138 2.7 2.6 -4
Delaware 1.2 1.5 26 0.9 1.4 49 5.4 2.4 -56
District of Columbia 2.3 3.5 54 1.9 3.1 61 8.6 7.1 -17
Florida 1.8 2.4 35 1.1 1.9 67 6.2 4.7 -24
Georgia 2.9 2.4 -16 1.9 2.1 11 17.7 7.5 -58
Hawaii 1.1 1.7 62 0.7 1.4 103 7.6 5.5 -27
Idaho 0.8 1.4 77 0.6 1.6 150 3.8 2.1 -44
Illinois 1.1 2.0 85 1.0 2.0 111 4.3 3.8 -11
Indiana 0.8 1.4 87 0.6 1.5 146 3.3 1.8 -46
Iowa 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.5 142 3.5 1.8 -49
Kansas 0.9 1.3 46 0.6 1.4 122 3.5 1.9 -45
Kentucky 2.5 4.3 69 1.8 4.5 151 12.5 7.4 -41
Louisiana 3.4 3.7 10 2.0 3.5 72 20.1 8.4 -58
Maine 2.0 2.3 18 1.4 2.6 87 8.6 3.3 -62
Maryland 1.2 1.7 48 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 4.1 -24
Massachusetts 2.2 2.6 16 1.3 2.6 103 10.8 5.8 -46
Michigan 1.3 2.1 67 1.1 2.3 115 5.9 3.1 -47
Minnesota 0.8 1.3 60 0.6 1.3 136 3.7 2.6 -30
Mississippi 4.5 4.5 0 2.4 4.1 69 26.0 11.4 -56
Missouri 1.8 2.0 14 1.1 2.1 91 7.9 3.1 -61
Montana 0.9 1.5 69 0.7 1.7 136 3.8 2.1 -45
Nebraska 0.9 1.2 36 0.6 1.3 103 3.4 1.8 -47
Nevada 0.8 1.3 55 0.5 1.1 108 5.9 3.3 -44
New Hampshire 0.6 0.9 55 0.4 1.0 127 2.5 1.3 -49
New Jersey 1.1 1.7 49 0.9 1.5 74 4.7 4.5 -4
New Mexico 2.0 2.6 32 1.4 2.4 75 12.4 7.1 -43
New York 2.1 3.3 56 1.6 2.8 76 8.3 9.0 9
North Carolina 2.4 2.4 0 1.6 2.0 27 13.6 6.0 -56
North Dakota 1.0 1.3 31 0.6 1.3 128 5.1 2.4 -52
Ohio 1.1 2.1 89 1.0 2.3 132 4.2 2.5 -40
Oklahoma 2.3 2.1 -9 1.3 2.1 58 11.6 4.2 -64
Oregon 0.9 1.5 74 0.7 1.6 129 3.3 2.6 -21
Pennsylvania 1.4 2.3 64 1.1 2.4 114 5.0 3.4 -31
Rhode Island 1.6 2.6 64 1.1 2.6 141 6.4 5.0 -22
South Carolina 2.7 2.7 0 1.8 2.4 35 17.0 6.3 -63
South Dakota 1.1 1.7 49 0.7 1.7 136 5.0 3.1 -38
Tennessee 2.9 2.9 1 1.9 2.8 50 14.8 6.2 -58
Texas 1.9 2.0 6 1.0 1.5 58 12.7 7.8 -39
Utah 0.6 0.9 64 0.5 1.0 96 3.0 1.9 -37
Vermont 1.8 2.1 19 1.3 2.2 68 8.1 3.9 -52
Virginia 1.5 1.9 27 1.0 1.6 57 8.5 4.9 -42
Washington 1.2 1.7 47 1.0 1.8 84 4.8 3.6 -25
West Virginia 2.1 3.9 83 1.9 4.5 142 8.0 4.7 -41
Wisconsin 1.4 1.6 11 1.0 1.6 67 6.5 2.4 -63
Wyoming 0.4 1.2 186 0.3 1.3 348 2.7 1.6 -42

Note: Recipiency rates for 2000 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the population in the respective age group as of the month of April; calculations by DHHS. The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001, and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table SSI 9. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years, 1975 – 2000 [In percentages]

State 1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 19942 19962 20002
Total1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.3
Alabama 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.6
Alaska 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.4
Arizona 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.6
Arkansas 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.2
California 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2
Colorado 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.2
Connecticut 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.4
Delaware 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5
District of Columbia 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.5
Florida 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.4 2.4
Georgia 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.4
Hawaii 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7
Idaho 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.4
Illinois 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.0
Indiana 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4

Iowa

1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4
Kansas 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.3
Kentucky 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.4 4.3
Louisiana 3.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.2 3.7
Maine 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.3
Maryland 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7
Massachusetts 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.7 2.6
Michigan 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.2 2.2 2.1
Minnesota 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3
Mississippi 5.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.2 4.5
Missouri 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.0
Montana 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.5
Nebraska 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2
Nevada 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.3
New Hampshire 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9
New Jersey 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.7
New Mexico 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.6
New York 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.3
North Carolina 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.4
North Dakota 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3
Ohio 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.1
Oklahoma 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.1
Oregon 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5
Pennsylvania 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.3
Rhode Island 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.6 2.6
South Carolina 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.0 2.7
South Dakota 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.7
Tennessee 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.4 2.9
Texas 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.0
Utah 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.9
Vermont 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1
Virginia 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9
Washington 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7
West Virginia 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.5 3.8 3.9
Wisconsin 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.6
Wyoming 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.2

1The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, and 1992, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, and 71 respectively.

2For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year except for 2000 when the April 1 population figures are used. For 1994-2000 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2001, and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).


1Earlier editions of Indicators of Welfare Dependence included students 18-21 in the count of children and so reported about 50 thousand more disabled children.

2On February 20, 1990, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual functional assessment (or a residual functional capacity assessment) that applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments. The GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the individual functional assessments for children were initiated.

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