Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2002. Indicator 2. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

03/01/2002

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1999

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1999

  • In 1999, 59 percent of individuals who received TANF, 58 percent of individuals who received food stamps, and 39 percent of individuals who received SSI were in families with at least one person in the labor force, either part-time or full-time.
  • Over one-third of TANF and food stamp recipients lived in families with at least one full-time worker in 1999, while slightly less than one-fourth had a part-time labor force participant. In contrast, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participant.
  • As shown in Table IND 2a, among recipients of TANF, food stamps, and SSI, a larger percentage of children under age 6 were in families with at least one full-time worker than children ages 6 to 15.
  • The percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with at least one full-time worker increased from 24 percent in 1996 to 36 percent in 1999, as shown in Table IND 2b.

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race/Ethnicity, and Age: 1999

  No one in LF At least one in LF, 
No one FT
At least one FT worker
TANF
All Persons 40.8 24.1 35.1
Non-Hispanic White 36.7 26.1 37.2
Non-Hispanic Black 47.9 27.1 24.9
Hispanic 42.2 17.0 40.8

Children Ages 0-5

39.7 21.6 38.7
Children Ages 6-10 47.1 24.6 28.3
Children Ages 11-15 43.8 21.8 34.4
Women Ages 16-64 40.1 25.6 34.3
Men Ages 16-64 29.9 30.1 40.0
Adults Age 65 and over 33.6 2.7 63.7
SSI
All Persons 61.5 9.5 29.1
Non-Hispanic White 68.0 7.8 24.2
Non-Hispanic Black 61.9 12.2 25.9
Hispanic 47.6 10.5 41.9
Children Ages 0-5 26.4 15.9 57.7
Children Ages 6-10 36.2 20.0 43.8
Children Ages 11-15 31.2 18.8 50.1
Women Ages 16-64 68.7 9.4 21.9
Men Ages 16-64 64.7 8.7 26.6
Adults Age 65 and over 63.7 6.6 29.7
Food Stamps
All Persons 42.5 22.5 35.0
Non-Hispanic White 44.5 21.2 34.2
Non-Hispanic Black 43.0 25.2 31.8
Hispanic 39.0 18.8 42.3

Children Ages 0-5

34.9 22.8 42.3
Children Ages 6-10 36.0 25.2 38.8
Children Ages 11-15 36.6 23.1 40.4
Women Ages 16-64 42.6 24.4 33.0
Men Ages 16-64 40.8 22.8 36.4
Adults Age 65 and over 88.4 6.2 5.4

Note:  Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source:  March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-1999

  No one in LF At least one in LF, No one FT At least one FT worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1

Note:  Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source:  March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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