Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2002. Economic Security Risk Factor 3. Experimental Poverty Measures

03/01/2002

Figure ECON 3. Percentage of Persons in Poverty Using Various Experimental Poverty Measures, by Age: 2000

Figure ECON 3.  Percentage of Persons in Poverty Using Various Experimental Poverty Measures, by Age: 2000

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2001.

  • Four experimental measures of poverty developed by the Census Bureau in response to the recommendation of a 1995 panel of the National Academy of Sciences yield poverty rates that are similar to the official poverty measure overall, but differ by age and other characteristics.
  • Experimental measures generally show lower poverty rates among children than the official measure, partly because they take into account non-cash benefits that many children receive. Conversely, experimental measures show higher rates of poverty among the elderly than the official measure, in part due to the inclusion of certain out-of-pocket health costs in these measures.
  • The percentage of all persons in poverty dropped steadily between 1996 and 2000 under each of the four experimental poverty measures, as well as under the official rate, as shown in Table ECON 3b.

Table ECON 3a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty Using Various Experimental Poverty Measures, by Race/Ethnicity and Age: 2000

  Official Poverty Measure National Academy of Sciences Different Child Care Method Different Equiv-alency Scale No Geographic Adjustment

All Persons

11.3 11.5 11.7 11.4 11.3
Racial/Ethnic Categories

White

9.4 10.0 10.2 10.0 9.9

Black

22.1 19.5 20.2 19.6 19.4

Hispanic Origin

21.2 21.8 22.3 21.4 19.9
Age Categories

Children Ages 0-17

16.2 14.3 15.1 14.0 14.2

Adults Ages 18-64

9.4 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.5

Adults Age 65 and over

10.2 14.5 14.1 14.6 14.6

Table ECON 3b. Percentage of Persons in Poverty Using Various Experimental Poverty Measures: 1990-2000

 Year Official Poverty Measure National Academy of Sciences Different Child Care Method Different Equiv-
alency Scale
No Geographic Adjustment
1990 13.5 13.7 13.6 13.6 13.8
1991 14.2 14.5 14.3 14.4 14.6
1992 14.8 15.1 15.0 15.1 15.2
1993 15.1 15.8 15.7 15.8 15.8
1994 14.5 14.6 14.5 14.6 14.6
1995 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.9
1996 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.6 13.5
1997 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3
1998 12.7 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.3
1999 11.8 11.7 11.8 11.8 11.7
2000 11.3 11.5 11.7 11.4 11.3

Note: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. The National Academy of Sciences experimental poverty measure most closely implements changes recommended by a 1995 NAS panel, including: counting non-cash income as benefits; subtracting from income certain work-related, health, and child care expenses; and adjusting poverty thresholds for family size and geographic differences in housing costs. The other three measures are similar, except for the treatment of child care expenses (Different Child Care Method), the family size adjustment (Difference Equivalency Scale), and the geographic adjustment (No Geographic Adjustment).

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 1991 to 2001; U.S. Census Bureau, “Selected Experimental Poverty Measures: 1990 to 1999”, available at www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/povmeas/exppov/ suexxpov.html. Further explanations of each of the alternative poverty measures may be found in: U.S. Census Bureau “Experimental Poverty Measure: 1990 to 1997”, Current Population Reports, Series P60-205, June 1999.

View full report

Preview
Download

"title-TOC-execsum.pdf" (pdf, 50.42Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"ch1.pdf" (pdf, 42.07Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"ch2.pdf" (pdf, 127.72Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"ch3.pdf" (pdf, 205.45Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"appa-FS.pdf" (pdf, 81.31Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"appa-SSI.pdf" (pdf, 73.31Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"appa-TANF.pdf" (pdf, 160.32Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"appb.pdf" (pdf, 12.59Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"appc.pdf" (pdf, 14.4Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®