Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2001 . Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

03/01/2001

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act.  Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons.  To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability.  Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18, unmarried, and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements.  Individuals and couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels, which were $532 for an individual and $789 for a couple in fiscal year 2000.  SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

SSI law requires that SSI applicants file for all other money benefits for which they may be entitled.  Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort”-- after evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.”  (The Social Security Administration, which administers the SSI program, works with recipients and helps them get any other benefits for which they are eligible.)  As of December 1999, 36 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security benefits; Social Security benefits are the single highest source of income for SSI recipients.

No individual could receive both SSI payments and AFDC benefits; if eligible for both, the individual was required to choose which benefit to receive.  Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit.  The PRWORA does not specifically prohibit an individual’s receipt of both TANF benefits and SSI; states have complete authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels.

Except in California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash that is included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps.  If all household members receive SSI, they do not need to meet the Food Stamp Program financial eligibility standards to participate in the program because they are categorically eligible.  If SSI beneficiaries live in households where other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Recent Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress are likely to affect Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation and expenditures.  Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibits SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability.  This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment.  It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

The PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of providing benefits for severely disabled children while preventing children without serious impairments from receiving benefits.  First, the act replaced the former law “comparable severity” test with a new definition of childhood disability based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment.  Second, it discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which authorized subjective judgment to determine children’s eligibility for SSI.  Third, it eliminated references to “maladaptive behavior” in the Listings of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function).  The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996).  Current beneficiaries receiving benefits due to an IFA or maladaptive behavior listing received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case is redetermined.  All currently receiving benefits are subject to redetermination using the new eligibility criteria by February 28, 1998 (per P.L. 105-33, enacted August 5, 1997).

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits.  Essentially, qualified aliens (including legal immigrants) are barred from SSI.  Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which grandfathered immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA.

Several provisions aimed at reducing SSI fraud and improving recovery of overpayments were enacted in 1999, as part of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-169).  Other legislation enacted in 1999 provides additional work incentives for disabled beneficiaries of SSI.

SSI Program Data

The following set of tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables SSI-1 through SSI-4 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program;
  • Table SSI-5 presents some demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload; and 
  • Tables SSI 6-8 present some state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 1999.

From 1990 to 1995, the program increased from 4.8 million beneficiaries to 6.5 million beneficiaries, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year.  Since 1995, the number of beneficiaries has stabilized, fluctuating between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons.  In December 1999, there were nearly 6.6 million beneficiaries.  Table SSI 1 presents information on the number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 1999.  In addition to data on the total number of SSI recipients, Table SSI 1 also shows recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adult age 18-64, and adult age 65 or older).  See also Table IND 9a and Table IND 9b in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table A-20.  The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to 1.3 million persons in December 1998.  At the same time there has been a strong growth in disabled beneficiaries, from 1.6 million in December 1974 to 5.2 million in December 1999.  Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly in the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 340,000 in December 1990 to 955,000 in December 1996.  The number of disabled children has fallen in the past three years, declining to 847,000 in December 1999.[1]

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the General Accounting Office (GAO).  GAO concluded that three groups – adults with mental impairments, children, and non-citizens – accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth in the early 1990s.  The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case[2], expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.

Figure SSI 1.  SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1999

Figure SSI 1.  SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1999

Source:  Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).


Table SSI 1. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments
1974 – 1999
[In thousands]

    Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
      Blind and Disabled   Adults
Date Total Aged Total Blind Disabled Children Age 18-64 65 or Older
Dec 1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 71 1 1,503 2,422
Dec 1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 107 1,699 2,508
Dec 1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 125 1,714 2,397
Dec 1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 147 1,738 2,353
Dec 1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 166 1,747 2,304
Dec 1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 177 1,727 2,246
Dec 1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 190 1,731 2,221
Dec 1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 195 1,703 2,121
Dec 1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 192 1,655 2,011
Dec 1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 198 1,700 2,003
Dec 1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 212 1,780 2,037
Dec 1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 227 1,879 2,031
Dec 1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 241 2,010 2,018
Dec 1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 251 2,119 2,015
Dec 1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 255 2,203 2,006
Dec 1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 265 2,302 2,026
Dec 1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 309 2,450 2,059
Dec 1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 397 2,642 2,080
Dec 1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 556 2,910 2,100
Dec 1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 723 3,148 2,113
Dec 1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 841 3,335 2,119
Dec 1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 917 3,482 2,115
Dec 1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 955 3,568 2,090
Dec 1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 880 3,562 2,054
Dec 1998 6,566 1,332 5,234 80 5,154 887 3,646 2,033
Dec 1999 6,557 1,308 5,249 79 5,169 847 3,691 2,019

1  Includes students 18-21 in 1974 only.

Source:  Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).


Table SSI 2. SSI Recipiency Rates, 1974 – 1999 [In percent]

        Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
  All Recipients as a Percent of Total Population1 Adults 18-64 as a Percent of 18-64 Population1 Child Recipients as a Percent of All Children1 All Persons 65 & Older1 All Elderly Poor2 Pretransfer Elderly Poor3
Dec 1974 1.9 1.2 0.1 10.8 78.5 NA
Dec 1975 2.0 1.3 0.2 10.9 75.6 NA
Dec 1976 1.9 1.3 0.2 10.2 72.4 NA
Dec 1977 1.9 1.3 0.2 9.7 74.1 NA
Dec 1978 1.9 1.3 0.3 9.3 71.5 NA
Dec 1979 1.8 1.3 0.3 8.8 61.3 66.8
Dec 1980 1.8 1.2 0.3 8.6 57.5 64.7
Dec 1981 1.7 1.2 0.3 8.0 55.0 63.3
Dec 1982 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.4 53.6 62.3
Dec 1983 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.3 55.2 61.9
Dec 1984 1.7 1.2 0.3 7.2 61.2 66.3
Dec 1985 1.7 1.3 0.4 7.1 58.7 64.5
Dec 1986 1.8 1.3 0.4 6.9 57.9 63.4
Dec 1987 1.8 1.4 0.4 6.7 56.5 64.7
Dec 1988 1.8 1.5 0.4 6.6 57.6 64.3
Dec 1989 1.9 1.5 0.4 6.5 60.3 64.6
Dec 1990 1.9 1.6 0.5 6.5 56.3 63.3
Dec 1991 2.0 1.7 0.6 6.5 55.0 61.1
Dec 1992 2.2 1.9 0.8 6.5 53.5 59.8
Dec 1993 2.3 2.0 1.1 6.4 56.3 63.3
Dec 1994 2.4 2.1 1.2 6.4 57.9 65.6
Dec 1995 2.5 2.2 1.3 6.4 63.7 71.4
Dec 1996 2.5 2.2 1.4 6.2 61.0 69.3
Dec 1997 2.4 2.2 1.3 6.0 60.8 69.1
Dec 1998 2.4 2.2 1.3 5.9 60.0 69.1
Dec 1999 2.4 2.2 1.2 5.8 63.7 72.4

1 Population numbers used for the denominators are Census resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year; see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106 and Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to July 1, 2000, Internet release date January 2, 2001 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).
2 For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-210. 
3 The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table A-20.  Rates computed by DHHS. 

Source: 1994 Green Book and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1999," Current Population Reports, Series P60-210, and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).


Table SSI 3. Total, Federal, and State SSI Benefits and Administration, 1974 – 19991 [In millions of dollars]

  Total Benefits Federal Payments State Supplementation Administrative
Costs (fiscal year)
Calendar Year 19992 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974............. $16,839 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975............. 17,425 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976............. 17,013 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977............. 16,623 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 NA
1978............. 16,171 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979............. 15,928 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 610
1980............. 16,074 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981............. 15,889 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 718
1982............. 15,651 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 779
1983............. 15,730 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 830
1984............. 16,631 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985............. 17,125 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 953
1986............. 18,364 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,022
1987............. 18,993 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 976
1988............. 19,415 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 975
1989............. 20,126 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,051
1990............. 21,158 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991............. 22,659 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,257
1992............. 26,400 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,538
1993............. 28,313 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,467
1994............. 29,089 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,775
1995............. 30,202 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,973
1996............. 30,572 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,949
1997............. 30,156 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055
1998............. 30,884 30,216 26,405 3,812 3,003 808 2,304
1999............. 30,959 30,959 26,805 4,154 3,301 853 2,493

1 Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year.
2 Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics).


Table SSI 4. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1999

  Total 1 Federal Payments State Supplementation
Calendar Year 1999 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974............. $459 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975............. 327 112 92 66 69 45
1980............. 310 158 133 89 91 76
1984............. 337 211 187 93 93 93
1985............. 338 219 193 99 99 102
1986............. 353 232 202 107 108 101
1987............. 353 242 208 117 118 110
1988............. 353 253 219 118 118 118
1989............. 357 267 230 126 126 127
1990............. 356 283 244 132 131 136
1991............. 362 297 260 125 122 143
1992............. 389 328 292 124 121 147
1993............. 389 337 306 112 107 150
1994............. 380 338 310 105 99 152
1995............. 384 350 322 110 103 164
1996............. 381 359 333 108 103 145
1997............. 385 369 342 99 102 86
1998............. 389 379 350 103 104 102
1999............. 388 388 356 111 113 105

 1 Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and State-only average benefit.
Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table SSI 3 and the denominators are given in Table SSI 5.  Averages were computed by DHHS.  Data adjusted for inflation using the monthly values of the CPI-U-X1 index.
Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000.


Table SSI 5. Number of Persons Receiving SSI Payments by Type of Payment, 1974 – 1999 (in thousands)

Calendar     State Supplementation
Total Federal Total Federally Administered State Administered
Year Jan 1974...... 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec 1975...... 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec 1980...... 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec 1984...... 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec 1985...... 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec 1986...... 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec 1987...... 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec 1988...... 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec 1989...... 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec 1990...... 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec 1991...... 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec 1992...... 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec 1993...... 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec 1994...... 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec 1995...... 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec 1996...... 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec 1997...... 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657
Dec 1998...... 6,649 6,289 3,072 2,412 661
Dec 1999...... 6,641 6,275 3,116 2,441 675

Source:  Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000.


Table SSI 6. Characteristics of SSI Recipients, by Age, Sex, Earnings/Income, and Citizenship: Selected Years, 1980-1999

  1980 1985 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999
Total
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  under 18 5.5 5.5 6.4 10.0 13.4 14.4 13.5 12.9
  18-64 40.9 45.4 50.9 52.3 53.0 54.0 55.5 56.2
  65 or older 53.6 49.1 42.7 37.7 33.7 31.6 31.0 30.9
Sex                
  Male 34.4 35.2 37.2 39.0 41.3 41.9 41.3 41.4
  Female 65.5 64.8 62.8 61.0 58.7 58.1 58.7 58.6
Selected Sources of Income                
  Earnings 3.2 3.8 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.5
  Social Security 51.0 49.4 45.9 42.1 39.1 37.0 36.5 36.3
  No other income 34.8 34.5 36.4 38.7 43.6 46.2 47.3 47.5
Noncitizens NA 5.1 9.0 10.8 11.7 11.0 10.2 10.4
Eligibility Category                
  Aged 43.6 36.4 30.2 26.4 23.3 21.4 20.3 20.0
  Blind 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2
  Disabled 54.5 61.7 68.1 72.0 75.4 77.4 78.5 78.8
Aged
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  65-69 14.0 14.9 19.4 20.7 20.5 19.1 16.6 16.0
  70-79 51.5 45.6 41.3 42.5 44.3 47.0 49.4 49.9
  80 or older 34.5 39.5 39.2 36.8 35.1 33.9 34.1 34.0
Sex                
  Male 27.3 25.5 25.1 25.6 26.8 27.6 28.2 28.6
  Female 72.6 74.5 74.9 74.4 73.2 72.4 71.8 71.4
Noncitizens NA 9.7 19.4 25.4 30.0 29.5 27.4 28.2
Blind and Disabled
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
  18-64 80.2 77.7 80.0 82.0 83.4 83.8 83.9 83.9
  65 or older 19.8 22.3 20.0 18.0 16.6 16.2 16.1 16.1
Sex 1                
  Male 39.8 40.8 42.4 43.9 41.8 41.4 41.0 40.9
  Female 60.2 59.2 57.6 56.1 58.2 58.6 59.0 59.1
Noncitizens NA 2.4 4.6 5.6 6.2 5.9 5.8 6.0
Children
Ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 11.7 NA NA 16.0 15.8 14.5 14.8 15.1
  5-9 20.9 NA NA 26.9 28.5 28.1 29.8 29.1
  10-14 28.8 NA NA 30.6 32.7 32.8 35.4 35.9
  15-17 21.7 NA NA 15.7 17.3 18.4 19.9 19.9
  18-21 2 16.8 14.3 9.3 10.8 5.7 6.2
Sex                
  Male NA NA NA 62.0 63.0 63.4 63.3 63.4
  Female NA NA NA 38.0 37.0 36.6 36.7 36.6

Note: Data are for December of the year.

1 For 1980-1992 male-female classification reflects all blind and disabled, both children and adults; thereafter, it is based on adults only.
2 In this table, students 18-21 are classified as children prior to 1998.

Source: Social Security Administration, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000 and prior years.


Table SSI 7. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 1999 (In thousands)

        State Supplementation
State Total Total Federal Federal SSI Administered State
Total $30,959,475 $30,106,532 $26,805,157 $3,300,975 $853,343
Alabama 659,976 659,321 659,321 655
Alaska 51,354 34,663 34,663 16,691
Arizona 340,568 340,318 340,318 250
Arkansas 339,065 339,065 339,065
California 6,167,642 6,167,642 3,900,708 2,266,934
Colorado 301,021 229,519 229,519 71,502
Connecticut 301,672 210,934 210,934 90,738
Delaware 49,523 49,523 48,583 940
District of Columbia 91,130 91,130 87,884 3,246
Florida 1,588,501 1,564,230 1,564,220 10 24,271
Georgia 772,792 772,789 772,782 10
Hawaii 97,546 97,546 84,722 12,824
Idaho 83,951 73,216 73,216 10,735
Illinois 1,205,453 1,177,260 1,177,260 28,193
Indiana 384,576 380,000 380,000 4,576
Iowa 173,432 156,590 153,845 2,745 16,842
Kansas 150,723 150,723 150,723
Kentucky 736,917 719,935 719,935 16,982
Louisiana 727,754 727,238 727,238 516
Maine 119,450 110,690 110,690 8,760
Maryland 395,695 389,027 389,015 12 6,668
Massachusetts 788,296 788,296 623,107 165,189
Michigan 1,077,231 982,648 953,887 28,761 94,583
Minnesota 336,541 266,246 266,246 70,295
Mississippi 517,090 517,090 517,081 9
Missouri 488,832 463,435 463,435 25,397
Montana 55,593 55,593 54,810 783
Nebraska 89,823 83,622 83,622 6,201
Nevada 100,977 100,977 96,147 4,830
New Hampshire 58,190 46,972 46,972 11,218
New Jersey 665,113 665,113 586,359 78,754
New Mexico 187,105 186,871 186,871 234
New York 3,118,358 3,118,358 2,573,094 545,264
North Carolina 843,399 719,909 719,909 123,490
North Dakota 31,708 29,683 29,683 2,025
Ohio 1,124,699 1,124,699 1,124,684 15
Oklahoma 334,708 297,354 297,354 37,354
Oregon 239,459 219,117 219,117 20,342
Pennsylvania 1,339,319 1,339,319 1,208,955 130,364
Rhode Island 123,595 123,595 101,043 22,552
South Carolina 436,684 423,301 423,301 13,383
South Dakota 50,961 48,660 48,653 7 2,301
Tennessee 666,082 666,082 666,080 2
Texas 1,556,804 1,556,804 1,556,804
Utah 86,511 86,511 86,456 55
Vermont 51,130 51,130 41,954 9,176
Virginia 551,881 529,962 529,962 21,919
Washington 469,541 469,193 440,462 28,731 348
West Virginia 315,748 315,748 315,748
Wisconsin 488,907 362,718 362,718 126,189
Wyoming 23,916 23,230 23,230 686
Other: N. Mariana Islands 2,937 2,937 2,937
Unknown -165 -238 1

1 Represents recovered State payments not yet credited to the states.

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin · Annual Statistical Supplement · 2000.


Table SSI 8. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 1999 [In percent]

  Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-64 Rate for Adults 65 & Over
  1979 1999 Percent Change 1979-99 1979 1999 Percent Change 1979-99 1979 1999 Percent Change 1979-99
Alabama 3.6 3.7 4 1.8 3.3 80 21.0 8.3 -60
Alaska 0.8 1.3 69 0.5 1.4 159 14.0 5.7 -59
Arizona 1.1 1.7 53 0.9 1.6 80 5.0 3.4 -32
Arkansas 3.5 3.4 -3 1.9 3.1 66 17.1 7.2 -58
California 3.0 3.2 6 2.1 2.5 22 16.4 12.8 -22
Colorado 1.1 1.3 18 0.8 1.3 69 6.7 3.4 -49
Connecticut 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.5 138 2.7 2.5 -7
Delaware 1.2 1.6 34 0.9 1.4 49 5.4 2.6 -52
District of Columbia 2.3 3.9 71 1.9 3.4 77 8.6 7.1 -17
Florida 1.8 2.4 35 1.1 2.0 75 6.2 4.8 -23
Georgia 2.9 2.5 -13 1.9 2.2 16 17.7 8.0 -55
Hawaii 1.1 1.7 62 0.7 1.4 103 7.6 5.6 -26
Idaho 0.8 1.4 77 0.6 1.5 134 3.8 2.1 -44
Illinois 1.1 2.1 94 1.0 2.1 121 4.3 3.8 -11
Indiana 0.8 1.5 100 0.6 1.6 162 3.3 1.8 -46
Iowa 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.6 158 3.5 1.9 -46
Kansas 0.9 1.4 57 0.6 1.5 138 3.5 2.0 -42
Kentucky 2.5 4.3 69 1.8 4.5 151 12.5 7.7 -39
Louisiana 3.4 3.8 13 2.0 3.5 72 20.1 9.0 -55
Maine 2.0 2.3 18 1.4 2.6 87 8.6 3.6 -58
Maryland 1.2 1.7 48 0.9 1.5 60 5.4 4.1 -24
Massachusetts 2.2 2.7 21 1.3 2.6 103 10.8 5.8 -46
Michigan 1.3 2.1 67 1.1 2.3 115 5.9 3.1 -47
Minnesota 0.8 1.3 60 0.6 1.4 155 3.7 2.6 -30
Mississippi 4.5 4.7 5 2.4 4.2 74 26.0 12.3 -53
Missouri 1.8 2.0 14 1.1 2.1 91 7.9 3.2 -59
Montana 0.9 1.6 80 0.7 1.7 136 3.8 2.2 -42
Nebraska 0.9 1.3 48 0.6 1.4 119 3.4 1.8 -47
Nevada 0.8 1.3 55 0.5 1.2 126 5.9 3.5 -40
New Hampshire 0.6 0.9 55 0.4 1.0 127 2.5 1.3 -49
New Jersey 1.1 1.8 58 0.9 1.5 74 4.7 4.5 -4
New Mexico 2.0 2.6 32 1.4 2.4 75 12.4 7.5 -39
New York 2.1 3.3 56 1.6 2.9 82 8.3 8.9 8
North Carolina 2.4 2.5 4 1.6 2.1 33 13.6 6.4 -53
North Dakota 1.0 1.3 31 0.6 1.3 128 5.1 2.5 -50
Ohio 1.1 2.2 98 1.0 2.4 142 4.2 2.5 -40
Oklahoma 2.3 2.2 -5 1.3 2.1 58 11.6 4.5 -61
Oregon 0.9 1.5 74 0.7 1.6 129 3.3 2.6 -21
Pennsylvania 1.4 2.3 64 1.1 2.4 114 5.0 3.5 -29
Rhode Island 1.6 2.7 70 1.1 2.7 150 6.4 5.0 -22
South Carolina 2.7 2.8 4 1.8 2.4 35 17.0 6.8 -60
South Dakota 1.1 1.7 49 0.7 1.7 136 5.0 3.2 -36
Tennessee 2.9 3.0 5 1.9 2.9 55 14.8 6.6 -55
Texas 1.9 2.0 6 1.0 1.6 68 12.7 8.1 -36
Utah 0.6 0.9 64 0.5 1.1 116 3.0 1.9 -37
Vermont 1.8 2.1 19 1.3 2.2 68 8.1 4.2 -48
Virginia 1.5 1.9 27 1.0 1.6 57 8.5 5.1 -40
Washington 1.2 1.7 47 1.0 1.8 84 4.8 3.5 -28
West Virginia 2.1 3.9 83 1.9 4.4 137 8.0 4.9 -38
Wisconsin 1.4 1.6 11 1.0 1.7 77 6.5 2.5 -62
Wyoming 0.4 1.2 186 0.3 1.3 348 2.7 1.7 -38
Total 1.9 2.4 30 1.3 2.2 75 9.0 5.8 -35

Note: Recipiency rates for 1999 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the population in the respective age group as of the month of July; calculations by DHHS.  The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year.
Source: Social Security Administration and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).


Table SSI 9. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1999 [In percent]

  1975 1980 1985 1990 1992 1994 2 1996 2 1999 2
Alabama 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.7
Alaska 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3
Arizona 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.7
Arkansas 4.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.4
California 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2
Colorado 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3
Connecticut 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.5
Delaware 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6
District of Columbia 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.7 3.9
Florida 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.4 2.4
Georgia 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.5
Hawaii 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7
Idaho 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.4
Illinois 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.1
Indiana 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5
Iowa 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4
Kansas 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.4
Kentucky 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.4 4.3
Louisiana 3.9 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.2 3.8
Maine 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.3
Maryland 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7
Massachusetts 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.7 2.7
Michigan 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.2 2.2 2.1
Minnesota 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3
Mississippi 5.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.2 4.7
Missouri 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.0
Montana 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.6
Nebraska 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3
Nevada 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.3
New Hampshire 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9
New Jersey 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8
New Mexico 2.3 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.6
New York 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.3
North Carolina 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.5
North Dakota 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3
Ohio 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.1 2.3 2.2
Oklahoma 3.0 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.2
Oregon 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5
Pennsylvania 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.3
Rhode Island 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.6 2.7
South Carolina 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.0 2.8
South Dakota 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.7
Tennessee 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.0
Texas 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.0
Utah 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.9
Vermont 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1
Virginia 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.9
Washington 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.7
West Virginia 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.5 3.8 3.9
Wisconsin 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.6
Wyoming 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.2
Total 1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.4

1 The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, and 1992, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, and 71 respectively.
2 For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year.  For 1994-1999 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.
Source: Social Security Administration and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).


Endnotes

[1] Earlier editions of Indicators of Welfare Dependence included students 18-21 in the count of children and so reported about 50 thousand more disabled children.

[2]  On February 20, 1990, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual functional assessment (or a residual functional capacity assessment) applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments.  The GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the individual functional assessments for children were initiated.

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