Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2001 . Economic Security Risk Factor 9. Lack of Health Insurance

03/01/2001

Figure ECON 9. Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income: 1999

Figure ECON 9.  Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income: 1999

Source:  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, March 2000.


  • Poor persons were twice as likely as all persons to be without health insurance in 1999 (32 percent compared to 16 percent).  While the ratio varied across categories, persons with family income at or below the poverty line were more likely to be without health insurance regardless of race, gender, educational attainment, or age.

  • Hispanics were the racial/ethnic group least likely to have health insurance in 1999, among both the general population and those with incomes below the poverty line.  While whites in general were more likely to have insurance than blacks, poor blacks were more likely to have insurance than poor whites.

  • Among all persons, amount of education was inversely related to health insurance coverage, as shown in Table ECON 9.  However, among poor persons, educational attainment made little difference as to whether individuals had health insurance.

  • As shown in Table ECON 9, individuals ages 18 to 34 are the most likely to be without health insurance, among both the general population and the poor population.  Nearly half of all 18 to 34 year-olds with incomes below the poverty line had no health insurance in 1999.

Table ECON 9. Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income and Selected Characteristics: 1999

  All Persons Poor Persons
All Persons 15.5 32.4
Male 16.5 35.0
Female 14.6 30.4
White 14.2 33.2
Black 21.2 28.1
Hispanic 33.4 43.7
No H.S. Diploma 26.7 36.5
H.S. Graduate, no college 17.6 38.3
College Graduate 8.2 35.9
Age 18 and under 13.9 23.3
Ages 18-24 29.0 45.4
Ages 25-34 23.2 51.9
Ages 35-44 16.5 44.8
Ages 45-64 13.8 36.0
Age 65 and over 1.3 3.4

Note: "Poor persons" are defined as those with total family incomes at or below the poverty rate.  Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Health Insurance Coverage: 1999,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-211, 2000.

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