Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2001 . Appendix D. Sources of Data

03/01/2001

As noted in Chapter I, this 2001 report uses data from the Annual March Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to construct updated measures of some of the indicators that were based on data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) in prior year reports.  Specifically, the overall summary indicator of dependency and recipiency in Chapter I, three sets of indicators in Chapter II, and a work risk factor in Chapter III, are now based on CPS data.  Without a change in data source, these measures could not have been updated past the 1995 data published last year.  With the change, measures are now available through 1998, or in some cases, 1999, allowing examination of dependency in the wake of enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996.

The timely release of CPS data make them a better source of data than the SIPP data for some of the indicators of recipiency and dependence.  There are, however, some drawbacks to the CPS data.  Most importantly, the CPS does not collect income in the same detail as the SIPP.  Respondents are asked to recall income data for the prior calendar year, rather than for the prior four months, and there is not as much detailed probing for information on sources of income from welfare and other government programs.  The CPS has thus been criticized for greater underreporting of income, particularly welfare income, than the SIPP.  CPS data also are normally limited to measuring income and welfare receipt over an annual rather than a monthly period.

In an attempt to address these concerns, several indicators in this report are based on CPS data that have been analyzed by the Transfer Income Model (TRIM3), a microsimulation model developed by the Urban Institute under contract to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.  Although its primary purpose is to simulate program eligibility for various government programs and the impact of policy proposals, the TRIM model has also been used to correct for underreporting (Wheaton and Giannarelli, 2000.  “Underreporting of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the March CPS”).  In building its caseloads for AFDC/TANF, food stamps and SSI, the TRIM3 model starts with households reported as participants in the CPS and then adds additional households from the simulated eligible population until caseloads match the overall size and administrative characteristics of caseloads reported in administrative data.  In addition to adjusting for underreporting, the TRIM3 model converts annual variables on welfare receipt and income in the CPS to monthly measures, through a process of allocating annual earnings and income over twelve months, based on the reported number of weeks worked and months of welfare receipt.  The TRIM monthly measures of receipt and income, typically averaged across a calendar year, can then be compared to monthly measures from administrative data or the SIPP.  The simulation process is controlled so that monthly caseloads track administrative records; monthly employment trends track those reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and certain characteristics of recipients, including employment status, match those in administrative records.[1]

The TRIM-adjusted CPS data are used for indicators relating to Degree of Dependence (SUM1 and IND 1a and 1b), Receipt and Labor Force Attachment (IND 2), and Multiple Program Receipt (IND 5).  A labor force attachment risk factor previously measured with SIPP data (WORK 1), is now measured with regular CPS data, unadjusted.  In contrast to previous reports, this measure now examines labor force attachment over an annual rather than a monthly period. Other indicators and risk factors in the report continue to rely on the same data sources as in past reports.  As shown in Table D-1, these measures include one indicator that has always been based on the TRIM model (Rates of Participation, IND 4a and 4c), nearly a dozen risk factors that have always been based on CPS data, including measures of poverty, and several indicators that continue to use longitudinal data from the SIPP and PSID.

Changes in data source, use of the TRIM model, and changes from monthly to annual data all cause disruptions in the measurement of trends of recipiency and dependency over time. Therefore, the indicators using the TRIM-adjusted CPS data were analyzed over a six-year period – 1993 to 1998 – providing a new time series of dependency indicators from a consistent data source.[2]  Readers were cautioned in Chapter I against making simple comparisons between the historic SIPP data and the more current CPS data.  Still, some readers may be interested in comparing how different data sources measured certain indicators over the same time period.  This appendix provides tabulations from both SIPP and CPS for a common year (1995) or across several years (with an overlap in 1993-1995).  Some indicators that were measured using TRIM-adjusted CPS data include a third tabulation showing the CPS data without the TRIM adjustments.  Specifically, the remainder of this appendix includes brief text and sets of tables for the following indicators:

  • Recipiency and Dependency Rates              SUM 1                                     SIPP, TRIM, CPS
  • Degrees of Dependence                              IND 1a and 1b                         SIPP, TRIM, CPS
  • Receipt and Labor Force Attachment          IND 2a and 2b                         SIPP, TRIM
  • Multiple Program Receipt                           IND 5a and 5b                         SIPP, TRIM
  • Labor-Force Attachment                            WORK 1a and 1b                    SIPP, CPS

Table D-1.  Data Sources for Indicators, Highlighting Those with Changes in 2001 Report

2001 Report 2000 Report Title Data Source New Data Source, if Different in 2001
SUM 1 SUM 1 Recipiency and Dependency Rates SIPP (Annual) CPS/TRIM (Annual)
IND 1a, 1b IND 1a, 1c Degree of Dependence SIPP (Annual) CPS/TRIM (Annual)
IND 2 IND 4 Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment SIPP (Monthly) CPS/TRIM (Monthly)
IND 3 IND 9 Rates of Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance Administrative  
IND 4 IND 10 Rates of Participation in Means-Tested Assistance Programs CPS/TRIM  
IND 5 IND 7 Multiple Program Receipt SIPP (Monthly) CPS/TRIM (Monthly)
IND 6 IND 2 Dependence Transitions SIPP  
IND 7 IND 3 Dependence Spell Duration SIPP  
IND 8 IND 5 Program Spell Duration SIPP  
IND 9 IND 1b Long-Term Dependency PSID  
IND 10 IND 6 Long-Term Receipt PSID  
IND 11 IND 8 Events Associated with the Beginning an Ending of Program Spells PSID  
ECON 1 ECON 1a Poverty Rates CPS  
ECON 2 ECON 1b Deep Poverty Rates CPS  
ECON 3 (new) Alternative Poverty Measures CPS  
ECON 4 SUM 4 Poverty Rates with Various Means-Teste Benefits Included CPS  
         
ECON 5 ECON 2 Poverty Spells SIPP  
ECON 6 ECON 3 Long-Term Poverty PSID  
ECON 7 ECON 4 Child Support CPS  
ECON 8 ECON 5 Food Insecurity CPS  
ECON 9 ECON 6 Lack of Health Insurance CPS  
  WORK 1 Labor Force Attachment SIPP (Monthly) CPS (Annual)
WORK 1        
WORK 2 WORK 2 Employment Among the Low-Skilled CPS  
WORK 3 WORK 3 Earnings of Low-Skilled Workers CPS  
WORK 4 WORK 8 Educational Attainment CPS  
WORK 5 WORK 9 High School Dropout Rates CPS  
WORK 6 WORK 5 Adult Alcohol and Substance Abuse NHSDA  
WORK 7 WORK 4 Adult/Child Disability NHIS-D  
WORK 8 WORK 6 Children=s Health Conditions NHIS  
WORK 9 WORK 7 Child Care Expenditures SIPP  
BIRTH 1 BIRTH 1 Births to Unmarried Women Vital Statistics  
BIRTH 2 BIRTH 2 Births to Unmarried Teens Vital Statistics  
BIRTH 3 BIRTH 3 Unmarried Teen Birth Rates within Age Groups Vital Statistics  
BIRTH 4 BIRTH 4 Never-Married Family Status CPS  

Recipiency and Dependency Rates (SUM 1).

The three tabulations of SUM 1 use SIPP data, TRIM-adjusted CPS data, and regular CPS data (see pages D-5 through D-8).  The three tables use very similar definitions of recipiency and dependency: recipiency and dependency are measured on an annual basis and the recipiency rates measure the receipt of any amount of AFDC/TANF, SSI or food stamps by any family member at any point in the year.[3]  One difference, which only affects a small number of cases, is that the SIPP data include general assistance income within AFDC income when measuring percentage of income from welfare sources.  The CPS data, with and without TRIM adjustments, focus on AFDC/TANF, food stamps and SSI only. 

The SIPP and TRIM-adjusted CPS data show quite similar measures of recipiency in 1993, 1994, and 1995, as depicted in Figure D-1.  In contrast, recipiency rates in the regular CPS data are considerably lower in all three years.  In 1995, for example, the recipiency rate is 17.0 percent in the SIPP data and 16.9 percent in the TRIM-adjusted CPS data, compared to only 13.3 percent in the CPS data. Although all three sources show a decline in recipiency between 1993 and 1995, the decline is larger in the CPS data than in the other two data sets.

Dependency rates are also much higher in the TRIM-adjusted CPS data and the SIPP data than in the CPS data, as shown in Figure D-2.  All three data sources are consistent in showing a decline in dependency between 1993 and 1994 and again between 1994 and 1995.

Figure D-1.  Recipiency Rates from Three Data Sources, 1993-1998

Figure D-1.  Recipiency Rates from Three Data Sources, 1993-1998

Notes and source: See Tables SUM1_SIPP, SUM1_TRIM, and SUM1_CPS.


Figure D-2. Dependency Rates from Three Data Sources, 1993-1998

Figure D-2. Dependency Rates from Three Data Sources, 1993-1998

Notes and source: See Tables SUM1_SIPP, SUM1_TRIM, and SUM1_CPS.


Table SUM 1_SIPP.  Recipiency and Dependency Rates: 1993-1995

  1993 1994 1995
Recipiency Rates (Rates of Any Amount of AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps, or SSI)
All Persons 17.8 18.0 17.0
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 10.9 11.1 10.4
Non-Hispanic Black 41.8 43.2 40.9
Hispanic 33.9 37.1 34.6
Age Categories      
Children Ages 0-5 29.0 32.4 27.6
Children Ages 6-10 24.0 28.6 28.7
Children Ages 11-15 22.6 24.9 23.6
Women Ages 16-64 17.3 17.5 16.8
Men Ages 16-64 12.0 12.3 11.5
Adults Age 65 and over 12.2 12.3 12.2
Dependency Rates (More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance)
All Persons 5.9 5.6 5.1
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 2.8 2.6 2.3
Non-Hispanic Black 16.7 16.8 15.2
Hispanic 14.2 12.9 12.2
Age Categories      
Children Ages 0-5 13.3 12.5 10.6
Children Ages 6-10 12.3 12.0 11.6
Children Ages 11-15 10.5 9.3 9.1
Women Ages 16-64 5.8 5.5 5.2
Men Ages 16-64 2.7 2.5 2.3
Adults Age 65 and over 2.0 2.2 1.8

Note: Recipiency is defined as living in a family with receipt of any amount of AFDC, SSI, or food stamps during year.  Dependency is defined as having more than 50 percent of annual family income from AFDC, SSI and/or food stamps.  While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income.  Dependency rates would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working.  Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table SUM 1, which drew on unpublished data from the SIPP, 1992 and 1993 panels.


Table SUM 1_TRIM.  Recipiency and Dependency Rates: 1993-1998

  1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Recipiency Rates (Rates of Any Amount of AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps, or SSI)
All Persons 16.6 17.2 16.9 16.0 14.8 13.5
Racial Categories            
Non-Hispanic White 10.3 10.9 10.0 9.9 9.7 8.6
Non-Hispanic Black 38.0 38.3 38.6 35.6 30.2 29.6
Hispanic 34.6 34.9 35.0 32.0 28.0 24.5
Age Categories            
Children Ages 0-5 30.5 31.5 31.6 28.2 25.1 22.4
Children Ages 6-10 24.9 26.8 26.5 24.2 21.2 20.0
Children Ages 11-15 22.1 23.6 21.7 21.1 19.4 17.0
Women Ages 16-64 16.4 16.9 16.6 16.0 14.7 13.6
Men Ages 16-64 11.5 11.9 11.8 11.7 11.1 10.0
Adults Age 65 and over 11.2 10.9 10.6 10.3 10.2 9.9
Dependency Rates (More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance)
All Persons 5.9 5.8 5.3 5.2 4.5 3.8
Racial Categories            
Non-Hispanic White 3.0 2.9 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.1
Non-Hispanic Black 17.8 16.7 15.5 13.8 11.4 10.5
Hispanic 11.8 12.5 12.2 10.9 9.1 6.6
Age Categories            
Children Ages 0-5 13.9 13.7 12.9 11.2 9.3 7.8
Children Ages 6-10 11.2 11.2 10.5 9.5 8.4 6.7
Children Ages 11-15 9.3 9.2 7.6 8.1 7.4 5.7
Women Ages 16-64 5.9 5.7 5.2 5.2 4.6 3.9
Men Ages 16-64 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.1
Adults Age 65 and over 2.4 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.1

Note:  Recipiency is defined as living in a family with receipt of any amount of AFDC/TANF, SSI, or food stamps during year.  Dependency is defined as having more than 50 percent of annual family income from AFDC/TANF, SSI and/or food stamps.  Dependency rates would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2001), Table SUM 1, which drew on March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table SUM 1_CPS.  Recipiency and Dependency Rates: 1993-1998

  1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Recipiency Rates (Rates of Any Amount of AFDC, Food Stamps, or SSI)
All Persons 14.4 13.7 13.3 12.7 11.4 10.1
Racial Categories            
Non-Hispanic White 9.1 8.4 7.9 7.9 7.1 6.0
Non-Hispanic Black 35.0 33.1 32.4 30.3 26.6 25.5
Hispanic 27.5 27.2 26.1 23.7 21.3 17.5
Age Categories            
Children Ages 0-5 27.0 25.6 24.7 22.6 19.7 17.1
Children Ages 6-10 22.3 21.8 21.7 20.2 17.7 16.7
Children Ages 11-15 19.9 18.4 17.6 16.8 16.5 14.0
Women Ages 16-64 14.3 13.5 13.1 12.6 11.3 10.0
Men Ages 16-64 9.9 9.4 9.3 9.0 7.9 6.9
Adults Age 65 and over 8.7 8.6 7.9 8.5 7.6 7.1
Dependency Rates (More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance)
All Persons 4.6 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.1 2.5
Racial Categories            
Non-Hispanic White 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.3
Non-Hispanic Black 14.9 12.5 11.7 10.6 8.2 7.5
Hispanic 8.4 8.9 8.5 7.2 6.3 4.3
Age Categories            
Children Ages 0-5 10.9 10.1 9.5 7.2 6.2 4.9
Children Ages 6-10 9.0 8.5 7.6 6.8 5.7 4.5
Children Ages 11-15 7.6 6.7 5.8 5.6 5.1 3.8
Women Ages 16-64 4.8 4.4 4.0 3.8 3.3 2.6
Men Ages 16-64 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.4
Adults Age 65 and over 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.3

Note: Recipiency is defined as living in a family with receipt of any amount of AFDC/TANF, SSI, or food stamps during year.  Dependency is defined as having more than 50 percent of annual family income from AFDC/TANF, SSI and/or food stamps.  Dependency rates would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working.

Source: Unpublished March CPS data.


Degree of Dependence (Indicators 1a and 1b, formerly 1a and 1c).

The SUM 1 tables are drawn directly from the Indicator 1a tables, and so the same notes as above apply to the three tabulations of Indicator 1a (see pages D-10 to D-12).  The same concepts of recipiency and income are used in Indicator 1b, which examine percentages of total family income from various sources by poverty status as well as by race and age (see pages D-13 through D-18).  In these tables, annual family income is defined to include the value of food stamps.

The SIPP and TRIM-adjusted CPS data for Indicator 1b are very similar for those under 100 percent or 200 percent of the Federal poverty threshold (see Tables IND 1b_SIPP and IND 1b_TRIM).  For example, the percentage of total annual family income from AFDC, SSI and food stamps for all person below the poverty threshold was 42 and 41 percent according SIPP and TRIM-adjusted CPS, respectively.  Earnings contributed between 40 percent, with 18 percent from other income according to both data sources.  The data sets showed more divergence in results for individuals under 50 percent of poverty, a result which may be partially explained by the small sample size and heterogeneity of this subgroup of the poverty population.

The CPS data capture much less income from AFDC, SSI and food stamps, as shown in Table IND 1b_CPS.  For example, CPS data suggest that these sources amount to only 26 percent of family income for individuals below the poverty threshold in 1995, rather than the 41 to 42 percent found in SIPP and TRIM-adjusted CPS.  This under-reporting of welfare income in CPS indicates why the unadjusted CPS data were not used to report recipiency and dependency rates in the body of the report.

Table IND 1a_SIPP.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: 1993-1995

  0% >0% and <= 50% Total > 50%
1995
All Persons 83.0 11.9 5.1
Non-Hispanic White 89.6 8.3 2.3
Non-Hispanic Black 59.1 25.8 15.2
Hispanic 65.4 22.4 12.2
Children Ages 0-5 72.4 17.0 10.6
Children Ages 6-10 71.3 14.9 11.6
Children Ages 11-15 76.4 14.5 9.1
Women Ages 16-64 82.7 11.5 5.2
Men Ages 16-64 88.5 9.3 2.3
Adults Age 65 and over 87.8 10.4 1.8
1994
All Persons 82.0 12.4 5.6
Non-Hispanic White 88.9 8.5 2.6
Non-Hispanic Black 56.8 26.3 16.8
Hispanic 62.9 24.2 12.9
Children Ages 0-5 67.6 19.9 12.5
Children Ages 6-10 71.4 16.6 12.0
Children Ages 11-15 75.1 15.7 9.3
Women Ages 16-64 82.5 12.0 5.5
Men Ages 16-64 87.7 9.8 2.5
Adults Age 65 and over 87.7 10.2 2.2
1993
All Persons 82.2 12.0 5.9
Non-Hispanic White 88.8 8.4 2.8
Non-Hispanic Black 58.6 24.6 16.7
Hispanic 62.9 21.9 14.2
Children Ages 0-5 68.5 18.2 13.3
Children Ages 6-10 72.8 15.0 12.3
Children Ages 11-15 75.9 13.6 10.5
Women Ages 16-64 82.2 12.0 5.8
Men Ages 16-64 87.7 9.6 2.7
Adults Age 65 and over 88.1 10.0 2.0

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI and food stamps.  While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included under AFDC.  Total > 50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs.  Income includes cash income and the value of food stamps.  Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table IND 1a, which drew on unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Table IND 1a_TRIM.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: 1993-1995

  0% >0% and <= 50% Total > 50%
1995
All Persons 83.2 11.6 5.3
Non-Hispanic White 90.0 7.7 2.3
Non-Hispanic Black 61.4 23.1 15.5
Hispanic 65.0 22.8 12.2
Children Ages 0-5 68.4 18.6 12.9
Children Ages 6-10 73.5 16.0 10.5
Children Ages 11-15 78.3 14.1 7.6
Women Ages 16-64 83.4 11.3 5.2
Men Ages 16-64 88.2 9.3 2.5
Adults Age 65 and over 89.4 8.3 2.2
1994
All Persons 82.8 11.4 5.8
Non-Hispanic White 89.1 8.0 2.9
Non-Hispanic Black 61.7 21.6 16.7
Hispanic 65.1 22.4 12.5
Children Ages 0-5 68.5 17.8 13.7
Children Ages 6-10 73.2 15.6 11.2
Children Ages 11-15 76.5 14.3 9.2
Women Ages 16-64 83.1 11.2 5.7
Men Ages 16-64 88.1 9.3 2.7
Adults Age 65 and over 89.1 8.2 2.7
1993
All Persons 83.4 10.7 5.9
Non-Hispanic White 89.7 7.3 3.0
Non-Hispanic Black 62.0 20.3 17.8
Hispanic 65.4 22.8 11.8
Children Ages 0-5 69.5 16.6 13.9
Children Ages 6-10 75.1 13.7 11.2
Children Ages 11-15 77.9 12.8 9.3
Women Ages 16-64 83.6 10.5 5.9
Men Ages 16-64 88.5 8.8 2.7
Adults Age 65 and over 88.8 8.8 2.4

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI, and food stamps.  Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs.  Income includes cash income and the value of food stamps.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2001), Table IND 1a, which drew on March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 1a_CPS.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: 1993-1995

  0% >0% and <= 50% Total > 50%
1995
All Persons 86.7 9.4 3.9
Non-Hispanic White 92.1 6.2 1.7
Non-Hispanic Black 67.6 20.7 11.7
Hispanic 73.9 17.6 8.5
Children Ages 0-5 75.3 15.2 9.5
Children Ages 6-10 78.3 14.1 7.6
Children Ages 11-15 82.4 11.8 5.8
Women Ages 16-64 86.9 9.1 4.0
Men Ages 16-64 90.7 7.5 1.8
Adults Age 65 and over 92.1 6.5 1.4
1994
All Persons 86.3 9.4 4.3
Non-Hispanic White 91.6 6.2 2.1
Non-Hispanic Black 66.9 20.6 12.5
Hispanic 72.8 18.3 8.9
Children Ages 0-5 74.4 15.6 10.1
Children Ages 6-10 78.2 13.3 8.5
Children Ages 11-15 81.6 11.6 6.7
Women Ages 16-64 86.5 9.1 4.4
Men Ages 16-64 90.6 7.5 2.0
Adults Age 65 and over 91.4 7.0 1.6
1993
All Persons 85.6 9.8 4.6
Non-Hispanic White 90.9 6.8 2.3
Non-Hispanic Black 65.0 20.1 14.9
Hispanic 72.5 19.0 8.4
Children Ages 0-5 73.0 16.1 10.9
Children Ages 6-10 77.7 13.3 9.0
Children Ages 11-15 80.1 12.3 7.6
Women Ages 16-64 85.7 9.5 4.8
Men Ages 16-64 90.1 7.8 2.1
Adults Age 65 and over 91.3 7.3 1.4

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI, and food stamps.  Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs.  Income includes cash income and the value of food stamps.

Source: Unpublished March CPS data.


Table IND1b_SIPP. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995

  <50% of poverty <100% of poverty <200% of poverty 200%+ of poverty
All Persons        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 71.2 41.7 13.4 0.2
Earnings 19.3 39.8 65.0 84.9
Other Income 9.5 18.4 21.7 14.8
Racial Categories        
Non-Hispanic White        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 54.7 32.0 8.1 0.2
Earnings 34.7 44.5 64.9 84.1
Other Income 10.5 23.5 27.0 15.7
Non-Hispanic Black        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 83.0 51.8 23.0 1.0
Earnings 8.4 29.3 58.4 88.2
Other Income 8.6 18.8 18.5 10.8
Hispanic        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 71.7 43.2 16.7 0.5
Earnings 18.9 45.1 71.6 89.6
Other Income 9.4 11.7 11.7 9.9
Age Categories        
Children Ages 0-5        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 81.9 49.4 18.9 0.3
Earnings 11.6 39.3 71.3 93.5
Other Income 6.5 11.2 9.9 6.2
Children Ages 6-10        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 77.1 46.8 18.2 0.3
Earnings 15.4 41.8 70.1 92.9
Other Income 7.5 11.5 11.7 6.8
Children Ages 11-15        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 67.8 44.6 16.0 0.2
Earnings 24.5 40.2 68.1 92.5
Other Income 7.7 15.3 15.9 7.3
Women Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 68.9 42.0 13.6 0.2
Earnings 21.1 40.6 68.5 87.7
Other Income 18.2 17.3 17.9 12.0
Men Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 46.4 31.3 8.4 0.2
Earnings 35.4 48.4 74.3 89.0
Other Income 9.9 20.3 17.3 10.8
Adults Age 65 and over        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 29.7 21.3 6.2 0.4
Earnings 10.8 3.3 8.1 24.6
Other Income 59.5 75.4 85.6 75.0

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of food stamps. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included in AFDC income. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest, and dividends.  Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table IND 1c, which drew on unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Table IND 1b_TRIM.  Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by  Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995

  < 50% poverty <100% of poverty <200% of poverty 200%+ of poverty
All Persons        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 65.9 41.3 14.2 0.3
Earnings 22.5 40.4 64.8 85.4
Other Income 11.6 18.3 21.0 14.3
Racial Categories        
Non-Hispanic White        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 55.5 30.3 8.1 0.2
Earnings 27.6 43.8 65.3 84.7
Other Income 16.9 25.8 26.6 15.2
Non-Hispanic Black        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 73.8 52.4 24.6 1.0
Earnings 16.2 30.3 57.6 87.6
Other Income 10.0 17.3 17.8 11.4
Hispanic        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 64.4 43.0 18.7 0.9
Earnings 28.2 47.5 70.8 90.2
Other Income 7.4 9.5 10.6 9.0
Age Categories        
Children Ages 0-5        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 76.8 52.0 21.6 0.4
Earnings 16.3 38.2 69.4 93.2
Other Income 6.9 9.8 9.0 6.3
Children Ages 6-10        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 70.8 46.7 17.7 0.3
Earnings 19.2 41.2 71.0 92.3
Other Income 10.0 12.1 11.3 7.3
Children Ages 11-15        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 68.4 42.4 15.5 0.2
Earnings 20.1 43.3 71.7 91.1
Other Income 11.5 14.4 12.8 8.7
Women Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 63.6 41.6 14.6 0.3
Earnings 23.6 40.6 68.6 88.4
Other Income 12.7 17.8 16.7 11.3
Men Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 46.6 30.8 10.0 0.3
Earnings 38.6 50.8 73.9 89.4
Other Income 14.9 18.4 16.1 10.3
Adults Age 65 and over        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 27.7 21.5 6.8 0.4
Earnings 3.9 3.4 8.9 33.6
Other Income 68.5 75.2 84.3 66.0

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of food stamps.  Other income is non means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest, and dividends.  Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 1b_CPS.  Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by  Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995

  < 50% poverty <100% of poverty <200% of poverty 200%+ of poverty
All Persons        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 44.9 25.9 8.6 0.2
Earnings 36.7 52.1 69.2 85.5
Other Income 18.4 22.0 22.1 14.3
Racial Categories        
Non-Hispanic White        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 33.2 18.2 5.1 0.2
Earnings 40.0 52.9 67.7 84.7
Other Income 26.8 28.9 27.3 15.2
Non-Hispanic Black        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 57.8 37.0 16.4 0.8
Earnings 25.1 41.2 64.4 87.7
Other Income 17.2 21.8 19.2 11.5
Hispanic        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 42.3 23.3 9.8 0.4
Earnings 46.6 64.1 78.7 90.5
Other Income 11.0 12.6 11.5 9.1
Age Categories        
Children Ages 0-5        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 55.9 31.9 12.0 0.2
Earnings 31.0 54.6 78.1 93.4
Other Income 13.1 13.5 9.9 6.4
Children Ages 6-10        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 50.2 30.0 10.5 0.2
Earnings 34.5 54.8 77.3 92.4
Other Income 15.3 15.2 12.2 7.4
Children Ages 11-15        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 45.8 27.9 10.6 0.2
Earnings 37.1 54.6 76.1 91.0
Other Income 17.1 17.5 13.4 8.7
Women Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 44.3 27.3 9.3 0.2
Earnings 36.0 51.8 73.3 88.4
Other Income 19.6 20.9 17.4 11.4
Men Ages 16-64        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 28.2 18.5 6.3 0.2
Earnings 51.5 61.1 77.2 89.5
Other Income 20.3 20.3 16.5 10.4
Adults Age 65 and over        
AFDC, SSI, and Food Stamps 18.3 14.2 4.0 0.3
Earnings 10.0 6.0 9.9 33.5
Other Income 71.7 79.7 86.0 66.2

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of food stamps.  Other income is non means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest, and dividends.  Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.

Source: Unpublished March CPS data.


Receipt and Labor-Force Attachment (Indicators 2a and 2b, formerly Indicators 4a and 4b):

In Indicator 2, receipt is measured on a monthly basis for the individual or individuals in a family or household who are direct beneficiaries of AFDC/TANF, SSI or food stamp benefits.  This measure of receipt differs from the annual measure of receipt by any member of the family used in Indicator 1 and SUM 1.  Some family members may be recipients while others are not, particularly in the case of SSI benefits, which are limited to individuals or couples.  In SIPP, recipients are those in the family who the survey respondent reports as “covered” by the benefit; in TRIM, recipients are those in the family who the model simulates as eligible for participation under programmatic rules.  Labor force attachment is examined in the same month as receipt.  Because the measure looks at recipients of all ages, not just adults, labor force attachment is measured as the presence of a family member in the labor force, whether or not the family member is the same person as the recipient.  Tables IND 2a_SIPP and IND 2a_TRIM examine receipt and labor force attachment in one year (1995 in this appendix) and Tables IND 2b_SIPP and IND 2b_TRIM examine trends over several years. 

The SIPP and TRIM-adjusted CPS data show similar overall results in 1993; both reported 57 percent of AFDC recipients lived in families with no labor force participants and 18 to 19 percent in families with a full-time worker (see Tables IND 2b_SIPP and IND 2b_TRIM).  The data are not quite as consistent in 1995, however.  Although both data sets show increased labor force participation among families with AFDC recipients between 1993 and 1995, the increase is more pronounced in the TRIM data.  The TRIM data indicate that 25 percent of AFDC recipients are in families with a full-time labor force participant, compared to 22 percent in the SIPP.  Similar differences are found for food stamp and SSI recipients and across racial and age categories.  Although not large, these differences suggest the importance of examining SIPP data for 1996-1998, once available.

It is important to note that both data sources show rising labor force participation among welfare recipients, despite different estimates of the precise level in 1995.  Moreover, other data sources, including administrative data and regular CPS data (not shown here because the CPS data are limited to annual measures, which cannot be easily compared to the monthly measures in SIPP and TRIM), are consistent in showing that the increase in labor force attachment has continued since 1995.

Table IND 2a_SIPP.  Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race, and Age: 1995

    No one in LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF participant
AFDC All Persons 54.1 23.8 22.1
  Non-Hispanic White 52.4 22.1 25.6
  Non-Hispanic Black 53.2 23.6 23.2
  Hispanic 58.4 23.0 18.6
  Children Ages 0-5 55.0 21.3 23.7
  Children Ages 6-10 59.0 21.1 19.9
  Children Ages 11-15 55.6 26.9 17.5
  Women Ages 16-64 52.1 24.0 23.9
  Men Ages 16-64 41.6 33.9 24.5
  Adults Age 65 and over 51.0 15.3 32.9
SSI All Persons 62.6 11.3 26.1
  Non-Hispanic White 63.4 10.5 26.1
  Non-Hispanic Black 64.4 13.7 21.9
  Hispanic 60.9 9.5 29.6
  Children Ages 0-5 N/A N/A N/A
  Children Ages 6-10 N/A N/A N/A
  Children Ages 11-15 N/A N/A N/A
  Women Ages 16-64 57.9 17.0 25.1
  Men Ages 16-64 56.8 10.1 33.1
  Adults Age 65 and over 73.9 4.2 22.0
FOODSTAMPS All Persons 46.1 22.7 31.2
  Non-Hispanic White 43.8 20.4 35.8
  Non-Hispanic Black 50.8 23.7 25.5
  Hispanic 44.2 22.6 33.2
  Children Ages 0-5 43.8 20.8 35.3
  Children Ages 6-10 47.8 22.2 30.0
  Children Ages 11-15 46.1 26.1 27.8
  Women Ages 16-64 45.9 23.8 30.3
  Men Ages 16-64 35.3 26.9 37.8
  Adults Age 65 and over 82.0 4.2 13.7

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members covered by benefits in a month. Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.  Data on receipt of SSI for young children are not available (N/A). Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table IND 4a, which drew on unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Table IND 2a_TRIM.  Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race, and Age: 1995

    No one in LF At least one in LF, No one FT At least one FT LF participant
AFDC All Persons 50.6 24.3 25.1
  Non-Hispanic White 43.4 28.0 28.6
  Non-Hispanic Black 57.5 22.4 20.2
  Hispanic 50.2 22.7 27.2
  Children Ages 0-5 53.4 20.9 25.7
  Children Ages 6-10 55.7 22.8 21.5
  Children Ages 11-15 51.9 25.0 23.1
  Women Ages 16-64 49.5 24.8 25.7
  Men Ages 16-64 30.5 37.1 32.3
  Adults Age 65 and over 46.9 5.5 47.6
SSI All Persons 62.0 10.4 27.5
  Non-Hispanic White 64.7 10.1 25.2
  Non-Hispanic Black 61.2 11.3 27.5
  Hispanic 57.8 10.1 32.1
  Children Ages 0-5 36.3 15.4 48.3
  Children Ages 6-10 33.2 20.3 46.5
  Children Ages 11-15 36.6 21.8 41.6
  Women Ages 16-64 65.7 11.3 23.0
  Men Ages 16-64 64.3 8.5 27.2
  Adults Age 65 and over 67.8 7.4 24.8
FOODSTAMPS All Persons 42.3 24.0 33.7
  Non-Hispanic White 41.6 26.3 32.1
  Non-Hispanic Black 45.8 23.8 30.5
  Hispanic 37.0 21.5 41.5
  Children Ages 0-5 40.0 22.0 38.0
  Children Ages 6-10 40.7 25.8 33.5
  Children Ages 11-15 38.6 25.7 35.6
  Women Ages 16-64 42.9 24.4 32.7
  Men Ages 16-64 34.5 28.4 37.1
  Adults Age 65 and over 83.8 7.5 8.7

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month.  Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source:  March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 2b_SIPP.  Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-1995

  No one In LF At least one in LF, No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
1993 56.5 25.7 17.8
1994 54.5 25.3 20.2
1995 54.1 23.8 22.1

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members covered by benefits in a month.  Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.  Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source:  Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2001), Table IND4b, which drew on unpublished data from the SIPP, 1992 and 1993 panels.


Table IND 2b_TRIM.  Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-1998

  No one in LF At least one in LF, No one FT At least one FT worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month.  Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2001), Table IND 4b, which drew on March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Multiple Program Receipt (Indicators 5a and 5b, formerly Indicators 7a and 7b):

As in Indicator 2 above, receipt in Indicator 5 is based on average monthly receipt over a year, by those in the family who were “covered” by the benefit according to the SIPP respondent or the TRIM model’s eligibility simulation.  Although these two definitions are quite similar, they are not identical.  In particular, TRIM does not show any individual as receiving both AFDC and SSI in the same month, consistent with program rules barring receipt of both types of benefits by the same individual. SIPP, however, shows a few individuals as covered by both SSI and AFDC (and in many cases food stamps), a result which may reflect errors in survey reporting or benefit administration.  Tables IND 5a_SIPP and IND 5a_TRIM examine multiple program receipt in 1995 and Tables IND 5b_SIPP and IND 5b_TRIM examine trends over several years.

The percentage of the population receiving benefits from AFDC, food stamps or SSI is consistently higher in the TRIM-adjusted CPS data as compared with the SIPP data.  In 1995, for example, 12.3 percent of the population had any receipt according to TRIM, compared with only 10.7 percent of the population in the SIPP data.  In particular, TRIM identifies more individuals as receiving food stamps, particularly food stamps alone or food stamps in combination with SSI.

No comparison is provided to CPS data because of the difficulty of comparing the CPS annual measures with the average monthly measures from SIPP and TRIM.

Table IND 5a_SIPP.  Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two, or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI), by Race and Age: 1995)

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs All Three Programs
    AFDC FS SSI AFDC & FS AFDC & SSI FS & SSI AFDC, FS & SSI
All Persons 10.7 0.5 3.9 1.1 4.3 N/A 0.7 0.2
Racial Categories                
Non-Hispanic White 7.9 0.3 3.3 0.9 2.7 N/A 0.5 0.1
Non-Hispanic Black 27.2 1.4 8.1 2.5 12.8 0.1 1.7 0.6
Hispanic 23.4 1.0 8.9 1.4 10.6 N/A 1.1 0.4
Age Categories                
Children Ages 0-5 21.4 1.1 7.7 0.0 12.5 N/A N/A N/A
Children Ages 6-10 21.1 1.5 7.4 0.0 12.2 N/A N/A N/A
Children Ages 11-15 16.5 0.8 6.4 0.0 9.3 N/A N/A N/A
Women Ages 16-64 10.5 0.5 3.5 1.3 3.8 N/A 0.9 0.5
Men Ages 16-64 5.3 0.1 2.7 1.1 0.9 N/A 0.4 N/A
Adults Age 65 and over 6.9 0.1 1.6 3.0 N/A N/A 2.2 N/A

Notes:  See Table IND 5b_SIPP on next page.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table IND 7a.


Table IND 5a_TRIM.  Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI), by Race and Age: 1995

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs All Three Programs
    AFDC FS SSI AFDC & FS AFDC & SSI FS & SSI AFDC, FS & SSI
All Persons 12.3 0.4 5.0 1.2 4.5 N/A 1.1 N/A
Racial Categories                
Non-Hispanic White 6.8 0.3 2.9 0.9 2.0 N/A 0.7 N/A
Non-Hispanic Black 30.3 0.9 11.8 2.1 12.6 N/A 2.9 N/A
Hispanic 26.8 0.8 11.1 2.0 11.1 N/A 1.8 N/A
Age Categories                
Children Ages 0-5 26.9 1.4 9.2 0.5 15.0 N/A 0.8 N/A
Children Ages 6-10 21.9 1.1 8.4 0.7 11.1 N/A 0.6 N/A
Children Ages 11-15 17.3 1.0 7.2 0.8 7.7 N/A 0.7 N/A
Women Ages 16-64 11.6 0.3 4.9 1.0 4.1 N/A 1.3 N/A
Men Ages 16-64 6.7 0.2 3.8 1.0 1.1 N/A 0.7 N/A
Adults Age 65 and over 8.5 0.0 2.0 3.7 0.1 N/A 2.7 N/A

Notes: See Table IND 5b_TRIM on next page. 

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM 3 microsimulation model.


Table IND 5b_SIPP.  Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI): 1993-1995

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs All Three Programs
    AFDC FS SSI AFDC & FS AFDC & SSI FS & SSI AFDC, FS, & SSI
1993 11.4 0.4 4.4 1.1 4.8 N/A 0.7 0.2
1994 11.2 0.4 4.3 1.1 4.6 N/A 0.7 0.2
1995 10.7 0.5 3.9 1.1 4.3 N/A 0.7 0.2

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive. SSI receipt based on individual receipt; AFDC and food stamp receipt based on those in the family covered by the benefit. Although individuals may not receive both AFDC and SSI, some individuals are reported in the SIPP data as being covered by both AFDC and SSI benefits. For certain categories, data are not available (N/A) because of insufficient sample size and because SSI recipiency data are not available for children. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year. The percentage of individuals receiving assistance from any one program in an average month (shown here) is lower than the percentage residing in families receiving any assistance over the course of a year (shown in Table SUM 1 in Chapter I).

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table IND 7b, which drew from unpublished data from the SIPP, 1992 and 1993 panels.


Table IND 5b_TRIM. Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from Multiple Programs (AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps, SSI): 1993-1998

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs All Three Programs
    AFDC/ TANF FS SSI AFDC/ TANF & FS AFDC/ TANF & SSI FS & SSI AFDC, FS, & SSI
1993 12.6 0.6 5.2 1.1 4.8 N/A 1.0 N/A
1994 12.8 0.5 5.3 1.2 4.6 N/A 1.1 N/A
1995 12.3 0.4 5.0 1.2 4.5 N/A 1.1 N/A
1996 12.0 0.3 5.3 1.2 4.0 N/A 1.1 N/A
1997 10.2 0.4 4.3 1.3 3.1 N/A 1.0 N/A
1998 9.0 0.4 3.9 1.4 2.4 N/A 0.9 N/A

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive.  SSI receipt based on individual receipt; AFDC and food stamp receipt based on full recipient unit.  By definition, individuals may not receive both AFDC and SSI; hence, no individual receives benefits from all three programs.  The percentage of individuals receiving assistance from any one program in an average month (shown here) is lower than the percentage residing in families receiving assistance over the course of a year (shown in Table SUM 1 in Chapter I and Table IND 1a in Chapter II).

Source: March CPS data, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


Labor-Force Attachment (WORK 1)

The first work-related risk factor, WORK 1, examines labor force attachment of the overall population.  Because this measure does not involve welfare receipt, and because the CPS is, by design, one of the best sources of data on labor force attachment, these data were not adjusted by the TRIM model.  The tabulations in this Appendix, therefore, are simply of CPS and SIPP data.  Data for 1995 are shown in Tables WORK 1a_SIPP and WORK 1a_CPS; the time series data are shown in Tables WORK 1b_SIPP and WORK 1b_CPS.  Comparisons are difficult, however, because the CPS tabulations of this work-related risk factor are based on annual measures of labor force attachment.  In contrast, the SIPP tabulations were based on average monthly measures of labor force attachment.

As expected, CPS data on labor force participation found fewer individuals with no family members in the labor force over the entire year as compared with the SIPP measures of labor force participation in the past month.  Full-time work throughout the year was also less common than full-time work for the past month.  Finally, part-time work (including part-year work), was more common when measured on an annual as opposed to a monthly basis.

Table WORK 1a_SIPP. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants in an Average Month, by Race and Age: 1995

  No one in LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
All Persons 16.6 8.5 74.9
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 16.1 7.5 76.4
Non-Hispanic Black 21.7 12.3 66.0
Hispanic 16.6 10.0 73.4
Age Categories      
Children Ages 0-5 11.4 8.3 80.3
Children Ages 6-10 11.9 8.7 79.4
Children Ages 11-15 9.9 9.1 81.0
Women Ages 16-64 10.1 9.0 80.9
Men Ages 16-64 6.5 7.1 86.4
Adults Age 65 and over 72.0 10.1 17.8

Notes:  See Table WORK 1b_SIPP on next page.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2000), Table WORK 1a.


Table WORK 1a_CPS. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Race and Age: 1995

  No one in LF During Year At least one in LF No one FT/FY At least one FT/FY LF participant
All Persons 13.8 17.0 69.2
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 13.8 15.4 70.9
Non-Hispanic Black 16.6 22.7 60.7
Hispanic 11.8 21.5 66.7
Age Categories      
Children Ages 0-5 7.9 19.1 73.1
Children Ages 6-10 7.3 17.9 74.8
Children Ages 1-15 5.9 16.2 77.9
Women Ages 16-64 7.6 17.7 74.7
Men Ages 16-64 5.3 16.0 78.7
Adults Age 65 and over 66.6 16.0 17.4

Notes: See Table WORK 1b_TRIM on next page.

Source: Unpublished tabulations of March CPS data


WORK 1b_SIPP. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants in an Average Month: 1990-1995

  No one in LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
1990 15.8 7.8 76.4
1991 16.2 8.6 75.2
1992 16.0 9.7 74.2
1993 16.3 9.5 74.2
1994 16.7 9.1 74.3
1995 16.6 8.5 74.9

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Part-time labor force participation includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence  (2001), which drew on unpublished data from the 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels.


Table WORK 1b_CPS.  Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1990-1999

  No one in LF During Year At least one in LF No one FT/FY At least one FT/FY LF participant
1990 13.7 18.1 68.3
1991 14.3 18.7 67.0
1992 14.3 18.6 67.1
1993 14.2 18.6 67.3
1994 14.0 17.7 68.3
1995 13.8 17.0 69.2
1996 13.6 16.7 69.7
1997 13.5 16.3 70.2
1998 13.3 15.3 71.4
1999 13.1 14.6 72.3

Note: Full-time full-year workers are defined as those who usually worked for 35 or more hours per week, for at least 50 weeks in a given year.  Part-time and part-year labor force participation includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off, and/or looking for work.  This indicator represents annual measures of labor force participation, and thus cannot be compared to monthly measures of labor force participation in Indicator 2 and published in previous Indicators of Welfare Dependence reports.

Source: Indicators of Welfare Dependence (2001), Table WORK 1b, which drew on unpublished tabulations of March CPS data.


Endnotes

[1] For further details about the TRIM microsimulation model, see the TRIM web site at http://trim3.urban.org.

[2] Refinements to the TRIM model during the six-year time period may affect the consistency of the time series.  Most notably, improvements to modeling participation of children in SSI from 1994 onward may be responsible for some of the increase in recipiency rates between 1993 and 1994.  In addition, refinements in modeling eligibility of certain non-citizen immigrants in 1997 and 1998 may decrease the number of Hispanic recipients but should have no net impact on recipiency or dependency rates.

[3] For all these indicators, family is defined following the broad Census Bureau definition of family – all persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption.  Related subfamilies in multi-generational households are included in the family of the householder.  Individuals are treated as one-person families.

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