Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2000. Indicator 4. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

03/01/2000

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1995

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • In 1995, 46 percent of individuals who received AFDC, 37 percent of individuals who received SSI, and 54 percent of individuals who received food stamps were in families with at least one person in the labor force. The comparable figure for individuals in the general population is 83 percent (as shown in Table WORK 1, in Chapter III).
  • More than half of those families receiving AFDC with at least one participant in the labor force had no one in the labor force full time. Conversely, a significant majority of SSI and food stamp families with at least one member in the labor force had at least one family member working full time.
  • As shown in Table IND 4a, among AFDC recipients, a larger percentage of children under age 6 were in families with at least one full-time labor force participant compared to children ages 6 to 15.

Table IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race, and Age: 1995

    No one in LF Atleast one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF participant
AFDC All Persons 54.1 23.8 22.1
  Non-Hispanic White 52.4 22.1 25.6
  Non-Hispanic Black 53.2 23.6 23.2
  Hispanic 58.4 23.0 18.6
  Children Ages 0 - 5 55.0 21.3 23.7
  Children Ages 6 - 10 59.0 21.1 19.9
  Children Ages 11 - 15 55.6 26.9 17.5
  Women Ages 16 - 64 52.1 24.0 23.9
  Men Ages 16 - 64 41.6 33.9 24.5
  Adults Age 65 and over 51.0 15.3 32.9
SSI All Persons 62.6 11.3 26.1
  Non-Hispanic White 63.4 10.5 26.1
  Non-Hispanic Black 64.4 13.7 21.9
  Hispanic 60.9 9.5 29.6
  Children Ages 0 - 5 N/A N/A N/A
  Children Ages 6 - 10 N/A N/A N/A
  Children Ages 11 - 15 N/A N/A N/A
  Women Ages 16 - 64 57.9 17.0 25.1
  Men Ages 16 - 64 56.8 10.1 33.1
  Adults Age 65 and over 73.9 4.2 22.0
FOOD STAMPS All Persons 46.1 22.7 31.2
  Non-Hispanic White 43.8 20.4 35.8
  Non-Hispanic Black 50.8 23.7 25.5
  Hispanic 44.2 22.6 33.2
  Children Ages 0 - 5 43.8 20.8 35.3
  Children Ages 6 - 10 47.8 22.2 30.0
  Children Ages 11 - 15 46.1 26.1 27.8
  Women Ages 16 - 64 45.9 23.8 30.3
  Men Ages 16 - 64 35.3 26.9 37.8
  Adults Age 65 and over 82.0 4.2 13.7

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Data on receipt of SSI for young children are not available (N/A). Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.


  • In 1995, 22 percent of all AFDC recipients lived in families with at least one full-time labor force participant – a higher percentage than at any other point in the previous nine years.
  • In all years shown above, more than half of all AFDC recipients lived in families where no one participated in the labor force. This percentage has varied between 58 percent and 54 percent, as shown in Table IND 4b.
  • About one-fourth of AFDC recipients lived in families with a labor force participant who worked less than full-time. This percentage was lower in 1995 (24 percent) than in 1992 (28 percent), suggesting that some of the increase in full-time work among AFDC recipients represents a shift from part-time to full-time work.

Table IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

  No one In LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
1987 55.3 28.1 16.6
1988 58.3 28.1 16.6
1990 58.3 23.3 18.4
1991 57.8 23.7 18.5
1992 54.2 28.1 17.7
1993 56.5 25.7 17.8
1994 54.5 25.3 20.2
1995 54.1 23.8 22.1

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

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