Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2000. Indicator 1. Degree of Dependence

03/01/2000

Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1995

Figure IND 1a.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

  • About 5 percent of the total population in 1995 received more than half of their total income from AFDC, food stamps and SSI. This number represents a decline from the proportion dependent on public assistance in 1993 (5.9 percent), but was not as low as the percentage in 1990 (4.2 percent), as shown in Table IND 1a.
  • Over four-fifths (83 percent) of the total population received no means-tested assistance in 1995. The inverse of this, the recipiency rate, (those receiving at least $1 of assistance from one of the three programs), was 17 percent. The proportion receiving no assistance has varied between 82 and 86 percent in previous years.
  • In 1995, as in earlier years, the majority of individuals receiving some public assistance reported that AFDC, food stamps, and SSI accounted for one-quarter or less of their total family income.
  • As shown in Table IND 1a, a larger percentage of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics received more than 50 percent of their income from means-tested assistance programs than non-Hispanic whites in all six years presented. However, even among these minority groups, more than 80 percent were not dependent on welfare under the definition used here.

Table IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: Selected Years

 

 

 

0%

> 0% and

<= 25%

> 25% and

<= 50%

Total

> 50%

> 50% and

<= 75%

Total

> 75%

 

1995

All Persons

83.0

9.4

2.5

5.1

1.4

3.8

Non-Hispanic White

89.6

6.9

1.4

2.3

0.8

1.6

Non-Hispanic Black

59.1

18.8

7.0

15.2

3.3

11.9

Hispanic

65.4

16.8

5.6

12.2

3.1

9.2

Children Ages 0 – 5

72.4

13.0

4.0

10.6

2.0

8.6

Children Ages 6 – 10

71.3

10.7

4.2

11.6

2.4

9.2

Children Ages 11 – 15

76.4

10.9

3.6

9.1

2.7

6.4

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.7

9.1

2.4

5.2

1.5

3.7

Men Ages 16 – 64

88.5

7.8

1.5

2.3

1.5

1.6

Adults Age 65 and over

87.8

8.1

2.3

1.8

0.7

1.1

 

1994

All Persons

82.0

9.9

2.5

5.6

1.6

4.0

Non-Hispanic White

88.9

7.1

1.4

2.6

0.9

1.7

Non-Hispanic Black

56.8

20.0

6.3

16.8

5.1

11.7

Hispanic

62.9

17.9

6.3

12.9

3.2

9.7

Children Ages 0 – 5

67.6

14.6

5.3

12.5

2.8

9.7

Children Ages 6 – 10

71.4

12.6

4.0

12.0

3.0

9.0

Children Ages 11 – 15

75.1

11.8

3.9

9.3

2.6

6.7

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.5

9.7

2.3

5.5

1.7

3.8

Men Ages 16 – 64

87.7

8.4

1.4

2.5

0.9

1.6

Adults Age 65 and over

87.7

8.2

2.0

2.2

1.0

1.1

 

1993

All Persons

82.2

9.5

2.5

5.9

1.6

4.3

Non-Hispanic White

88.8

7.0

1.4

2.8

0.8

2.0

Non-Hispanic Black

58.6

17.7

6.9

16.7

5.0

11.8

Hispanic

62.9

17.2

5.7

14.2

3.2

11.0

Children Ages 0 – 5

68.5

13.9

4.3

13.3

2.9

10.4

Children Ages 6 – 10

72.8

11.1

3.9

12.3

2.7

9.7

Children Ages 11 – 15

75.9

10.2

3.4

10.5

2.8

7.6

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.2

9.5

2.5

5.8

1.7

4.1

Men Ages 16 – 64

87.7

8.2

1.4

2.7

0.8

1.9

Adults Age 65 and over

88.1

7.7

2.3

2.0

0.8

1.2

Table IND 1a.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: Selected Years (continued)

 

 

 

 

> 0% and

> 25% and

Total

> 50% and

Total

0%

<= 25%

<= 50%

> 50%

<= 75%

> 75%

 

1992

All Persons

83.1

9.3

2.7

4.9

1.4

3.5

Non-Hispanic White

89.0

6.8

1.8

2.4

0.8

1.6

Non-Hispanic Black

59.0

18.3

6.9

15.9

4.1

11.7

Hispanic

66.7

17.6

5.1

10.5

2.5

8.0

Children Ages 0 - 5

71.1

12.1

4.6

12.2

3.0

9.3

Children Ages 6 - 10

76.2

10.7

3.6

9.5

2.6

6.9

Children Ages 11 - 15

76.8

11.9

3.8

7.5

2.1

5.4

Women Ages 16 - 64

83.0

9.2

2.8

5.0

1.3

3.7

Men Ages 16 - 64

88.2

8.2

1.6

1.9

0.7

1.3

Adults Age 65 and over

87.4

8.0

2.5

2.0

1.0

1.1

 

1990

All Persons

85.9

7.9

2.0

4.2

1.2

3.0

Non-Hispanic White

91.1

5.7

1.1

2.1

0.6

1.5

Non-Hispanic Black

63.4

16.0

6.0

14.6

5.2

9.3

Hispanic

70.5

16.8

4.4

8.3

2.1

6.2

Children Ages 0 - 5

76.0

11.0

2.8

10.3

2.4

7.9

Children Ages 6 - 10

79.8

9.2

2.6

8.5

2.4

6.0

Children Ages 11 - 15

81.2

9.6

2.8

6.4

1.8

4.5

Women Ages 16 - 64

85.9

7.7

1.8

4.6

1.3

3.2

Men Ages 16 - 64

90.5

6.7

1.3

1.5

0.5

1.0

Adults Age 65 and over

87.9

7.4

2.8

1.9

1.0

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

1987

All Persons

85.1

8.2

2.1

4.7

1.3

3.3

Non-Hispanic White

90.7

5.8

1.3

2.2

0.9

1.3

Non-Hispanic Black

59.1

18.7

6.5

15.7

3.9

11.8

Hispanic

71.7

13.6

3.8

10.9

2.2

8.7

Children Ages 0 - 5

75.5

10.9

3.7

10.0

2.7

7.3

Children Ages 6 - 10

76.8

10.5

2.6

10.1

2.8

7.3

Children Ages 11 - 15

80.2

9.2

2.6

8.0

1.6

6.4

Women Ages 16 - 64

85.6

7.9

1.9

4.6

1.1

3.5

Men Ages 16 - 64

89.9

6.8

1.4

2.0

0.8

1.2

Adults Age 65 and over

86.4

8.6

2.5

2.6

1.4

1.2

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI and food stamps. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included under AFDC. Total > 50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their income from these means-tested programs. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.


Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and  Food Stamps between 1982 and 1991, by Years of Dependency

Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and  Food Stamps between 1982 and 1991, by Years of Dependency

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1983 - 1992.


  • Unlike Figure IND 1a, which showed dependency rates for the total population, Figure IND 1b focuses on dependency among welfare recipients, measured over a ten-year time period. Half of all recipients in 1982 were not dependent on welfare in any year over the following decade, in the sense that in no year did they receive more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps. (SSI receipt is not counted in this particular measure). This was also true for 55 percent of all recipients between 1972 and 1981, as shown in the lower half of Table IND 1b.
  • About 13 percent of recipients in 1982 were dependent for more than 5 years over the following decade, 15 percent were dependent for 3 to 5 years, and 23 percent were dependent for 1 or 2 years. Dependency is again defined as receiving more than 50 percent of annual income from AFDC and food stamps.
  • Child recipients were more likely to be dependent than other recipients; only 34 percent of young child recipients in 1982 were not dependent in any year between 1982 and 1991, as shown in Table IND 1b. A slightly higher percentage (39 percent) of child recipients had no years of dependency in the earlier decade. The percentage of young black children who were not dependent—that is, were in families who did not receive more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps in any year – increased across the two time periods (from 24 percent to 31 percent). In comparison, the percentage of non-black recipient children who were not dependent decreased substantially across the two time periods (from 50 percent to 37 percent).

Table IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and Food Stamps Across Two Ten-Year Time Periods, by Years of Dependency, Race, and Age 

 

Note: The base for the percentages is recipients in a one-year time period, defined as individuals receiving at least $1 of AFDC in the first year (1982 or 1972). Child recipients are defined by age in the first year. This measures years of dependency over the specified ten-year time periods, and does not take into account years of dependency that may have occurred before the initial year (1972 or 1982).

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1973 - 1992.


Figure IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status: 1995

Figure IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Whereas the two previous figures show the proportion of individuals with more than 50 percent of total income from means-tested assistance, Figure IND 1c shows the average percentage of income from means-tested assistance and earnings, by poverty status.
  • Those in families with incomes below the poverty level received 42 percent of their total family income from means-tested assistance programs (AFDC, SSI, and food stamps) and 40 percent of their total family income from earnings. In contrast, families with total incomes at least 200 percent above the poverty line received the majority of their income from earnings (85 percent) and less than one percent of their income from means-tested assistance (a percentage so small as to not be visible in Figure IND 1c).
  • Those living in deep poverty (total family income less than 50 percent of poverty line) relied heavily on income from means-tested assistance (71 percent of total family income). This included assistance from AFDC and SSI (39 percent) and food stamps (33 percent), as shown in Table IND 1c. The percentage of income from earnings for those in deep poverty is about half the percentage for those in poverty (19 percent compared to 40 percent).

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995 (continued)

Note: While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included in AFDC income. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest, and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

View full report

Preview
Download

"Title" (pdf, 19.99Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table of Contents, Executive Summary" (pdf, 33.35Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter I. Introduction" (pdf, 51.31Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter II . Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 159.54Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter III. Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt" (pdf, 228.15Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendix A. Program Data" (pdf, 35.33Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-1" (pdf, 10.47Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-2" (pdf, 15.82Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-3" (pdf, 7.7Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-4" (pdf, 4.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-5" (pdf, 16.89Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-6, Figure A-7" (pdf, 19.93Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-1" (pdf, 14.74Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-2" (pdf, 7.44Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-3" (pdf, 15.96Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-4" (pdf, 7.43Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-5" (pdf, 7.41Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-6" (pdf, 6.9Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-7" (pdf, 10.04Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-8" (pdf, 9.61Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-9" (pdf, 14.36Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-10" (pdf, 11.91Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-11" (pdf, 14.18Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-12" (pdf, 14.49Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-13" (pdf, 13.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-14" (pdf, 11.6Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-15" (pdf, 13.55Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-16" (pdf, 5.17Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-17" (pdf, 11.18Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-18" (pdf, 14.37Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-19" (pdf, 14.33Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-20" (pdf, 5.17Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-21" (pdf, 6.75Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-22" (pdf, 8.76Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-23" (pdf, 7.56Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-24" (pdf, 10.76Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-25" (pdf, 13.16Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-26" (pdf, 10.87Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table B-1" (pdf, 9.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®