Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2000. Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 1. Labor Force Attachment

03/01/2000

Figure WORK 1. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Race: 1995

Figure WORK 1. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Race: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • In 1995, most individuals, regardless of race, lived in families with at least one person participating in the labor force on a full-time basis.
  • Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than Hispanics or non-Hispanic whites to live in families with no one in the labor force in 1995 (22 percent compared to 16 and 17 percent, respectively).
  • Working-age women were more likely than working-age men to live in families with no one in the labor force, as shown in Table WORK 1a.
  • Overall measures of labor force attachment have remained relatively steady over time, as shown in Table WORK 1b.
  • Levels of labor force attachment are lower for welfare recipients than for the general population. For example, 22 percent of AFDC recipients, as compared with 75 percent of the general population, lived in families with at least one full-time labor force participant in 1995 (according to data shown in Figure IND 4a, in Chapter II, and Table WORK 1a). Note, however, that labor force participation of AFDC recipients has risen in recent years.

Table WORK 1a. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Race and Age: 1995

  No one in LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
All Persons 16.6 8.5 74.9
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 16.1 7.5 76.4
Non-Hispanic Black 21.7 12.3 66.0
Hispanic 16.6 10.0 73.4
Age Categories      
Children Ages 0 – 5 11.4 8.3 80.3
Children Ages 6 – 10 11.9 8.7 79.4
Children Ages 11 – 15 9.9 9.1 81.0
Women Ages 16 – 64 10.1 9.0 80.9
Men Ages 16 – 64 6.5 7.1 86.4
Adults Age 65 and over 72.0 10.1 17.8

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Table WORK 1b. Percentage of Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

  No one in LF At least one in LF No one FT At least one FT LF Participant
1987 15.7 8.3 76.0
1988 15.5 7.7 76.8
1990 15.8 7.8 76.4
1991 16.2 8.6 75.2
1992 16.0 9.7 74.2
1993 16.3 9.5 74.2
1994 16.7 9.1 74.3
1995 16.6 8.5 74.9

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the 1987, 1990, 1992 and 1993 SIPP panels.

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