Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2000. Economic Security Risk Factor 1. Poverty Rates

03/01/2000

Figure ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age: 1959-98

Figure ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age: 1959-98

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and data published online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.


  • The percentage of persons living in poverty has continued to decline since 1993, when the poverty rate for all persons was at a ten-year high of just over 15 percent. In 1998, the overall poverty rate was just under 13 percent, the lowest level since 1989.
  • While the poverty rate for children has declined along with the overall rate in the past several years, children, particularly young children, continue to have higher poverty rates than the overall population. For example, in 1998, the poverty rate for related children ages 0 to 5 was 21 percent, compared to 13 percent for the overall population.
  • The poverty rate for blacks declined 7 percentage points between 1992 and 1998, from 33 percent to 26 percent, as shown in Table ECON 1a. Though at an historic low, the poverty rate for blacks remains 16 percentage points above the rate for whites. The poverty rate among Hispanics has also declined over this time period; in 1998, the Hispanic poverty rate was just about equal to that of blacks.
  • The poverty rate for the elderly reached an historic low of 10.5 percent in 1995 and has remained at essentially that level since then.

Table ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: Selected Years

  Related Children All Persons     Hispanic
  Ages 0 - 5 Ages 6 - 17 Total Under 18 1 18 to 64 65 & over White Black Origin 2
1959 N/A N/A 22.4 27.3 17.0 35.2 18.1 55.1 N/A
1963 N/A N/A 19.5 23.1 N/A N/A 15.3 N/A N/A
1966 N/A N/A 14.7 17.6 10.5 28.5 11.3 41.8 N/A
1969 15.3 13.1 12.1 14.0 8.7 25.3 9.5 32.2 N/A
1973 15.7 13.6 11.1 14.4 8.3 16.3 8.4 31.4 21.9
1976 17.7 15.1 11.8 16.0 9.0 15.0 9.1 31.1 24.7
1979 17.9 15.1 11.7 16.4 8.9 15.2 9.0 31.0 21.8
1980 20.3 16.8 13.0 18.3 10.1 15.7 10.2 32.5 25.7
1981 22.0 18.4 14.0 20.0 11.1 15.3 11.1 34.2 26.5
1982 23.3 20.4 15.0 21.9 12.0 14.6 12.0 35.6 29.9
1983 24.6 20.4 15.2 22.3 12.4 13.8 12.1 35.7 28.0
1984 23.4 19.7 14.4 21.5 11.7 12.4 11.5 33.8 28.4
1985 22.6 18.8 14.0 20.7 11.3 12.6 11.4 31.3 29.0
1986 21.6 18.8 13.6 20.5 10.8 12.4 11.0 31.1 27.3
1987 22.3 18.9 13.4 20.3 10.6 12.5 10.4 32.4 28.0
1988 21.8 17.5 13.0 19.5 10.5 12.0 10.1 31.3 26.7
1989 21.9 17.4 12.8 19.6 10.2 11.4 10.0 30.7 26.2
1990 23.0 18.2 13.5 20.6 10.7 12.2 10.7 31.9 28.1
1991 24.0 19.5 14.2 21.8 11.4 12.4 11.3 32.7 28.7
1992 25.7 19.4 14.8 22.3 11.9 12.9 11.9 33.4 29.6
1993 25.6 20.0 15.1 22.7 12.4 12.2 12.2 33.1 30.6
1994 24.5 19.5 14.5 21.8 11.9 11.7 11.7 30.6 30.7
1995 23.7 18.3 13.8 20.8 11.4 10.5 11.2 29.3 30.3
1996 22.7 18.3 13.7 20.5 11.4 10.8 11.2 28.4 29.4
1997 21.6 18.0 13.3 19.9 10.9 10.5 11.0 26.5 27.1
1998 20.6 17.1 12.7 18.9 10.5 10.5 10.5 26.1 25.6

1 All persons under 18 include related children (own children, including stepchildren and adopted children, plus all other children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption), unrelated individuals under 18 (persons who are not living with any relatives), and householders or spouses under age 18.2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and data published online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html. 


Figure ECON 1b. Percentage of Population Below 50 and 100 Percent of Poverty Level: 1975-98

Figure ECON 1b. Percentage of Population Below 50 and 100 Percent of Poverty Level: 1975-98

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and unpublished tables available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.


  • Between 1993 and 1998, the percentage of the population with incomes below 50 percent of the poverty level decreased by one percentage point (from 6.2 percent in 1993 to 5.1 percent in 1998).
  • In general, the percentage of the population with incomes below 50 percent of the poverty threshold has risen and fallen in a pattern that reflects to some degree the trend in the overall poverty rate. For example, the percentage of people below 50 percent of poverty rose between 1976 and 1983, then after falling slightly, rose to a second peak in 1993. The overall poverty rate – the percentage of people below 100 percent of poverty – also peaked in 1983 and 1993 in a somewhat similar pattern, although with more pronounced peaks and valleys.
  • Over the past two decades, however, there has been an overall increase in the proportion of the poverty population that falls below 50 percent of the poverty threshold. From a low of 28 percent of the poverty population in 1976, the population below 50 percent of the poverty threshold rose to nearly 41 percent by 1992. In 1998, 40 percent of poor persons experienced “deep poverty,” that is, had incomes that fell below 50 percent of the poverty level.
  • Not only the poverty rate, but also the total number of poor people fell in 1998, as shown in Table ECON 1b. In 1998, there were 34.5 million people with family incomes below 100 percent of the poverty threshold, 5 million fewer than the poverty population in 1959.

Table ECON 1b. Number and Percentage of Population Below 50, 75, 100, and 125 Percent of Poverty Threshold: Selected Years

in 000’s Total Below 50 percent Below 75 percent Below 100 percent Below 125 percent
  Population Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
1959 176,600 N/A N/A N/A N/A 39,500 22.4 54,900 31.1
1961 181,300 N/A N/A N/A N/A 39,600 21.9 54,300 30.0
1963 187,300 N/A N/A N/A N/A 36,400 19.5 50,800 27.1
1965 191,400 N/A N/A N/A N/A 33,200 17.3 46,200 24.1
1967 195,700 N/A N/A N/A N/A 27,800 14.2 39,200 20.0
1969 199,500 9,600 1 4.8 1 16,400 1 8.2 1 24,100 12.1 34,700 17.4
1971 204,600 N/A N/A N/A N/A 25,600 12.5 36,500 17.8
1973 208,500 N/A N/A N/A N/A 23,000 11.1 32,800 15.8
1975 210,900 7,700 3.7 15,400 7.3 25,900 12.3 37,100 17.6
1976 212,300 7,000 3.3 14,900 7.0 25,000 11.8 35,500 16.7
1977 213,900 7,500 3.5 15,000 7.0 24,700 11.6 35,700 16.7
1978 215,700 7,700 3.6 14,900 6.9 24,500 11.4 34,100 15.8
1979 222,900 8,600 3.8 16,300 7.3 26,100 11.7 36,600 16.4
1980 225,000 9,800 4.4 18,700 8.3 29,300 13.0 40,700 18.1
1981 227,200 11,200 4.9 20,700 9.1 31,800 14.0 43,800 19.3
1982 229,400 12,800 5.6 23,200 10.1 34,400 15.0 46,600 20.3
1983 231,700 13,600 5.9 23,600 10.2 35,300 15.2 47,000 20.3
1984 233,800 12,800 5.5 22,700 9.7 33,700 14.4 45,400 19.4
1985 236,600 12,400 5.2 22,200 9.4 33,100 13.6 44,200 18.7
1986 238,600 12,700 5.3 22,400 9.4 32,400 14.0 44,600 18.7
1987 241,000 12,500 5.2 21,700 9.0 32,200 13.4 43,100 17.9
1988 243,500 12,700 5.2 21,400 8.8 31,700 13.0 42,600 17.5
1989 246,000 12,000 4.9 20,700 8.4 31,500 12.8 42,600 17.3
1990 248,600 12,900 5.2 22,600 9.1 33,600 13.5 44,800 18.0
1991 251,200 14,100 5.6 24,400 9.7 35,700 14.2 47,500 18.9
1992 256,500 15,500 6.1 26,200 10.2 38,000 14.8 50,500 19.7
1993 259,300 16,000 6.2 27,200 10.5 39,300 15.1 51,900 20.0
1994 261,600 15,400 5.9 26,400 10.1 38,100 14.5 50,500 19.3
1995 263,700 13,900 5.3 24,500 9.3 36,400 13.8 48,800 18.5
1996 266,200 14,400 5.4 24,800 9.3 36,500 13.7 49,300 18.5
1997 268,500 14,600 5.4 24,200 9.0 35,600 13.3 47,800 17.8
1998 271,100 13,900 5.1 23,000 8.5 34,500 12.7 46,000 17.0

1 The number of persons below 50 percent and 75 percent of poverty are estimated based on the distribution of persons below 50 percent and 75 percent for 1969 taken from the 1970 decennial census: 1970 Census of Population, Volume 1, Social and Economic Characteristics, Table 259.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and unpublished tables available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.

View full report

Preview
Download

"Title" (pdf, 19.99Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table of Contents, Executive Summary" (pdf, 33.35Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter I. Introduction" (pdf, 51.31Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter II . Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 159.54Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Chapter III. Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt" (pdf, 228.15Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendix A. Program Data" (pdf, 35.33Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-1" (pdf, 10.47Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-2" (pdf, 15.82Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-3" (pdf, 7.7Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-4" (pdf, 4.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-5" (pdf, 16.89Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Figure A-6, Figure A-7" (pdf, 19.93Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-1" (pdf, 14.74Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-2" (pdf, 7.44Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-3" (pdf, 15.96Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-4" (pdf, 7.43Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-5" (pdf, 7.41Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-6" (pdf, 6.9Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-7" (pdf, 10.04Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-8" (pdf, 9.61Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-9" (pdf, 14.36Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-10" (pdf, 11.91Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-11" (pdf, 14.18Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-12" (pdf, 14.49Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-13" (pdf, 13.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-14" (pdf, 11.6Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-15" (pdf, 13.55Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-16" (pdf, 5.17Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-17" (pdf, 11.18Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-18" (pdf, 14.37Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-19" (pdf, 14.33Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-20" (pdf, 5.17Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-21" (pdf, 6.75Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-22" (pdf, 8.76Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-23" (pdf, 7.56Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-24" (pdf, 10.76Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-25" (pdf, 13.16Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table A-26" (pdf, 10.87Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Table B-1" (pdf, 9.97Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®