Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Indicator 4. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

10/01/1998

This indicator illustrates one aspect of the range of dependence by combining information on receipt of means-tested assistance and hours of employment.

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • In 1994, 46 percent of individuals who received AFDC, 38 percent of individuals who received SSI, and 57 percent of individuals who received Food Stamps were in families with at least one person in the labor force.
  • A larger percentage of individuals who received Food Stamps, compared to AFDC and SSI, were in families with at least one family member who participated in the labor force full-time.
  • As shown in Table IND 4a, among AFDC recipients, a larger percentage of children under age 6 were in families with at least one full-time labor force participant compared to children age 6 to 15.
  • As further shown in Table IND 4a, similar percentages of non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black AFDC recipients were in families with at least one full-time labor force participant (22 percent for both groups).

Table IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

    No One in LF At least 1 in LF No One FT At least 1 FT Labor Force Participant

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Data on receipt of SSI for young children is not available.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

AFDC All Recipients 54.5 25.3 20.2
  Non-Hispanic White 51.2 26.3 22.4
  Non-Hispanic Black 53.2 24.8 22.1
  Hispanic 62.5 20.7 16.8
  Children Age 0 to 5 57.1 21.6 21.4
  Children Age 6 to 10 59.3 23.8 16.9
  Children Age 11 to 15 57.8 26.5 15.7
  Women 16 to 64 52.5 25.7 21.8
  Men 16 to 64 32.0 40.9 27.1
  Adults 65 years and over 68.7 29.4 1.9
SSI All Recipients 62.1 11.8 26.1
  Non-Hispanic White 60.7 12.1 27.2
  Non-Hispanic Black 66.7 12.0 21.3
  Hispanic 61.5 11.3 27.1
  Children Age 0 to 5 NA NA NA
  Children Age 6 to 10 NA NA NA
  Children Age 11 to 15 58.9 0.0 41.1
  Women 16 to 64 56.7 14.9 28.4
  Men 16 to 64 56.9 13.2 29.9
  Adults 65 years and over 73.1 6.8 20.1
FOOD STAMPS All Recipients 43.5 24.7 31.8
  Non-Hispanic White 40.6 25.6 33.8
  Non-Hispanic Black 47.3 23.8 28.9
  Hispanic 44.2 22.3 33.6
  Children Age 0 to 5 43.0 22.1 34.9
  Children Age 6 to 10 44.6 24.2 31.2
  Children Age 11 to 15 42.3 27.2 30.5
  Women 16 to 64 31.0 30.4 38.6
  Men 16 to 64 43.4 26.0 30.6
  Adults Age 65 and over 81.9 6.6 11.5

Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, Selected Years

Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, Selected Years

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.


As shown in Figure IND 4b, the percentage of all AFDC recipients living in families with at least one full-time labor force participant increased from 17 percent in 1987 to 20 percent in 1994.

In all years shown above, more than half of all AFDC recipients lived in families where no one participated in the labor force.

As shown in Table IND 4b, while 28 percent of AFDC recipients in 1992 lived in families with at least one labor force participant but no full-time participants, this percent decreased to 25 in 1994.

Table IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, Selected Years

  No one In LF At least 1 in LF No one FT At least 1 FT Participant

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

1994 54.5 25.3 20.2
1993 56.5 25.7 17.8
1992 54.2 28.1 17.7
1991 57.8 23.7 18.5
1990 58.3 23.3 18.4
1988 58.3 28.1 16.6
1987 55.3 28.1 16.6

 

View full report

Preview
Download

"Introduction" (pdf, 47.84Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 152.45Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (First Half)" (pdf, 158.1Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (Second Half)" (pdf, 150.06Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendices (First Half)" (pdf, 182.84Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendices (Second Half)" (pdf, 289.7Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®