Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Indicator 2. Dependence Transitions

10/01/1998

Whereas other indicators (Indicator 1a) illustrate the depth of dependence in a single year, this indicator reflects changes in the level of dependence over two years.

Figure IND 2. Dependency Status in 1994 of Persons who Received More Than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 1993

Figure IND 2. Dependency Status in 1994 of Persons who Received More Than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 1993

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Four-fifths of all recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 1993 also received more than 50 percent of their total income from these same programs in 1994 (80 percent).
  • Of recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from AFDC, Food Stamps and SSI in 1993, a larger percentage of non-Hispanic whites became “less dependent” in 1994 (received 50 percent or less of their total income from means-tested assistance programs) compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks, although the ratios were similar across all categories.
  • While only a small percentage of all recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 1993 received no aid in 1994, the corresponding percentage for Hispanics in 1994 (3 percent) is somewhat larger than the percentages for the other groups.
  • As shown in Table IND 2, a slightly larger percentage of women who received more than half of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 1993 remained “dependent” in 1994 compared to the same percentage for men (79 percent compared to 76 percent).

Table IND. 2. Dependency Status in 1994 of Persons Who Received More Than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 1993

    Percentage of Persons Receiving
MORE THAN 50% TRANSFER INCOME IN 1993 Total (thousands) No Aid in 1994 Up to 50% Aid in 1994 More than 50% Aid in 1994

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC, Food Stamps, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

All persons 14810 1.6 18.6 79.8
Racial Categories        
Non-Hispanic White 5157 1.9 21.8 76.2
Non-Hispanic Black 4851 1.3 14.9 83.8
Hispanic origin 3623 2.7 17.5 79.8
Age Categories        
Children Age 0−5 3639 1.3 18.1 80.6
Children Age 6−10 2275 2.5 14.5 83.0
Children Age 11−15 1800 1.1 22.2 76.7
Men 16−64 1937 1.3 22.7 76.0
Women 16−64 4588 2.0 19.0 79.0
Adults 65 years and over 571 0.0 9.1 90.7

 

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"Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 152.45Kb)

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"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (First Half)" (pdf, 158.1Kb)

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