Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 1. Labor Force Attachment

10/01/1998

This risk factor focuses exclusively on the participation of an adult in the labor market, without regard to whether means-tested assistance was received concurrently. Measuring labor force attachment reflects a critical aspect of the risk of dependence.

Figure WORK 1. Percentage of All Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

Figure WORK 1. Percentage of All Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

Source: Table WORK 1a.


  • In 1994, most individuals, regardless of race, lived in families with at least one person participating in the labor force on a full-time basis.
  • Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than Hispanics or non-Hispanic whites to live in families with no one in the labor force.
  • As shown in Table WORK 1a, younger children were slightly more likely than older children to live in families with no one in the labor force.
  • Table WORK 1a shows that working-age women were more likely than working-age men to live in families with no one in the labor force, and less likely to live in families with at least one full-time labor force participant.
  • The percentage of individuals in families with no one in the labor force increased slightly, from 16 percent in 1987 to 17 percent in 1994, as shown in Table WORK 1b.

Table WORK 1a. Percentage of All Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994

  No One in Labor Force At Least One Person in Labor Force, No Full-Time Participants At Least One Full-Time Labor Force Participant

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

All Persons 16.7 9.1 74.3
Racial Categories      
Non-Hispanic White 16.2 8.2 75.6
Non-Hispanic Black 21.7 12.3 66.0
Hispanic 16.6 10.7 72.7
Age Categories      
Children Age 0 - 5 12.3 8.9 78.9
Children Age 6 - 10 11.6 9.3 79.1
Children Age 11 - 15 9.6 9.4 81.0
Women Age 16 - 64 19.2 9.4 71.4
Men Age 16 - 64 14.1 8.6 77.3

Table WORK 1b. Percentage of All Individuals in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1987 to 1994

  1987 1988 1990 1991 1993 1994

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, and 1993 panels.

No One in the Labor Force 15.7 15.5 15.8 16.2 16.3 16.7
At Least One Person in Labor Force, no Full-Time Participants 8.3 7.7 7.8 8.6 9.5 9.1
At Least One Full-Time Labor Force Participant 76.0 76.8 76.4 75.2 74.2 74.3

 

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