Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Economic Security Risk Factor 13. Adult Incarceration

10/01/1998

This risk factor tracks trends in the extent to which adults are living apart from their children because they are incarcerated. An incarcerated parent leaves his orher family at increased risk of dependence.

Figure ECON 13. Estimated Number of Sentenced Male Prisoners Under State or Federal Jurisdiction per 100,000 Resident Population, 1981 to 1996

Figure ECON 13. Estimated Number of Sentenced Male Prisoners Under State or Federal Jurisdiction per 100,000 Resident Population, 1981 to 1996

Source: Table ECON 13.


  • From 1980 to 1996, the number of black men incarcerated per 100,000 population increased 185 percent, while the rate for white men increased 144 percent in the same period.
  • Table ECON 13 shows that the rate of incarceration for women, while still very small relative to men, rose 364 percent from 1980 to 1996, with white female incarceration increasing 400 percent and black female incarceration increasing 307 percent.
  • Table ECON 13 also shows that the rates for black men and black women were much higher than the rates for white men and white women in 1996.

Table ECON 13. Estimated Number of Sentenced Prisoners Under State or Federal Jurisdiction per 100,000 Resident Population

  Total Men and Womena All Mena White Men Black Men All Womena White Women Black Women
1980 139 275 188 1111 11 6 45
1981 154 304 186 1217 12 7 50
1982 171 337 206 1345 14 8 57
1983 179 354 217 1412 15 9 58
1984 188 370 228 1459 16 9 63
1985 202 397 246 1559 17 10 68
1986 217 426 261 1895 20 12 77
1987 231 453 277 1800 22 13 82
1988 247 482 290 1951 24 15 91
1989 276 535 317 2200 29 17 115
1990 297 564 338 2234 31 19 117
1991 313 595 352 2368 33 19 129
1992 332 631 373 2499 35 20 136
1993 359 685 402 2718 40 23 155
1994 389 739 432 2923 45 26 169
1995 411 781 449 3095 47 27 176
1996 427 809 458 3162 51 30 183

Notes: Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year. Rates are based on U.S. resident population on July 1 of each year. Rates for 1990--1996 may differ from those previously published because the number of prisoners under jurisdiction have been revised and the resident population by sex and race have been adjusted for the Census undercount.

a Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and other racial groups.

Sources: Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994, 1995, 1996; U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ-160091, June 1996; NCJ-163916, May 1997; NCJ-170013, November 1998.

 

View full report

Preview
Download

"Introduction" (pdf, 47.84Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 152.45Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (First Half)" (pdf, 158.1Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (Second Half)" (pdf, 150.06Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendices (First Half)" (pdf, 182.84Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"Appendices (Second Half)" (pdf, 289.7Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®