For purposes of this report, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) has been used the most extensively and is considered the most useful national survey. Its strengths are its longitudinal design, system of monthly accounting, and detail concerning employment, income and participation in federal income-support and related programs. These features make the SIPP particularly effective for capturing the complexities of program dynamics and many of the indicators and predictors, or risk factors, associated with welfare receipt.
The SIPP does not, however, follow families for more than three years. Therefore, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) also are used in this report. Both the PSID and NLSY collect annual income data, including transfer income, over a long time-period, providing vital data for indicators of long-term and intergenerational welfare receipt, dependence, and deprivation.
Some indicators in this report are based upon the annual Current Population Survey (CPS), which is available on a more timely basis than the SIPP. The CPS measures income and poverty over a single annual accounting period, and provides important information regarding childhood poverty.
Finally, the report also draws upon administrative data for the AFDC, Food Stamp and SSI programs.
"Introduction" (pdf, 47.84Kb)
"Indicators of Dependence" (pdf, 152.45Kb)
"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (First Half)" (pdf, 158.1Kb)
"Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt (Second Half)" (pdf, 150.06Kb)
"Appendices (First Half)" (pdf, 182.84Kb)