Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Appendix A. Program Data

10/01/1998

The Welfare Indicators Act specifies that the annual welfare indicators reports shall include analyses of families and individuals receiving assistance under three means-tested benefit programs: the program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (replaced with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), the Food Stamp Program under the Food Stamp Act of 1997, and the Supplemental Security Income program under title XVI of the Social Security Act. This chapter includes information on the three programs, derived primarily from administrative data reported by state and federal agencies, instead of the national survey data presented in previous chapters. Discussion of each of the three individual programs is preceded, however, by an overview of several recent studies of caseload changes in the AFDC, Food Stamp, and SSI programs.

Recent Studies of Caseload Change

Historically, caseload size has served as the preeminent indicator of welfare dependence. Given the anticipated growth in state-level program variations since enactment of the PRWORA, several recent studies have looked at caseload changes among states.

A May 1997 report by the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) attempted to determine the cause of the 20 percent decline in number of individuals receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children from January 1993 and January 1997 by examining the impacts of three potential factors. The factors considered were economic growth, federal waivers which allowed states to experiment with innovative ways to reduce welfare dependence, and other policies affecting work-related incentives including expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and increased state and federal spending on child care. The CEA attributed over 40 percent of the caseload decline to falling unemployment rates associated with economic growth. Their analysis also found that almost one-third of the decline resulted from statewide welfare reform waivers in six broad categories: termination time limits, work-requirement time limits, reduced work program exemptions, increased work program sanctions, caps on benefits to families that have additional children while on welfare, and increased earnings disregards. Other factors, which might include policies such as the EITC expansions, accounted for the remainder of the caseload decline.

Another study, done by The Lewin Group, sought to improve understanding of state-level factors behind historical growth in AFDC caseloads by analyzing the relationship between state AFDC caseload growth and the strength and structure of the state economy, demographic trends, and changes in the structure of AFDC and other public assistance programs. Separately, Rebecca Blank investigated the determinants of aggregate public assistance (principally the AFDC program) caseload changes over time, by investigating the role of macroeconomic forces, public policies and demographic change.

Methodological differences notwithstanding, all three efforts concluded that the effects of the economy on welfare caseload changes were substantial. Unemployment rates, wage levels and job growth were all determined to be important factors. These are critical findings for states as they prepare for the implications of economic recessions and recoveries under the TANF block grant. Welfare caseload reductions caused by economic factors are also the most likely to be reflected in commensurate movement along the continuum from dependence to self-sufficiency at the family level.

Several other factors were also found to influence the size of welfare caseloads, including program parameters and operating rules. Benefit levels and eligibility criteria are significant determinants of caseload levels. In recent years, many states received waivers of federal requirements in order to experiment with policies that varied widely in scope. Many policies were designed to promote work, both through incentives for recipients (such as increased earnings disregards and expanded child care) and measures designed to strengthen enforcement of work requirements. Policies that reduced the number of exemptions from work requirements, increased sanctions or required work after a limited time period in exchange for benefits were adopted in a number of states. Interestingly, some of the estimated waiver effects on caseloads occurred even before the waiver was approved or implemented.

The increased options available to state agencies in implementing the TANF program under the new welfare law highlight the role that policy forces play in effecting caseload changes. State responses to their increased flexibility to define eligibility are still evolving. It is clear, however, that these policy decisions will determine even how “cases” are defined for data reporting purposes.

Concern about an increase of one million persons participating in the Food Stamp Program between the second quarters of fiscal years 1989 and 1990, a time with no major changes in the program or the economy, prompted Congress to ask the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a study detailing the specific factors and trends responsible. While the program growth was widespread, the size and timing of the participation increases varied considerably by state, with three states accounting for nearly half the increase.

The study concluded that no one factor could explain the increase, and that the importance of the three factors most responsible varied significantly from state to state. In some states, the expansions in Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women and children appeared to be a major contributor, although no clear regional pattern was evident. Increased unemployment was a key contributor in the northeast and north central states, while the changes in immigration laws, particularly the legalization of undocumented aliens (by the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986) were important in California and other southern and western states.

Aside from specific factors attributed to discrete periods of dramatic caseload changes, a number of factors are associated with changes in Food Stamp Program participation. Economic factors such as increases in unemployment, increases in the number of “working poor,” increases in food prices, and changes in the distribution of income are important, as are demographic changes such as an increase in the number of female-headed households. Other factors include changes in the number of eligible households caused by immigration legislation, changes in the Food Stamp Program itself, and changes in other public assistance programs that bring more people into the public assistance system.

Similarly, several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program. According to the General Accounting Office (GAO), three groups accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program’s growth since 1991: adults with mental impairments, children and noncitizens. The GAO attributes caseload growth to several factors including: expansion in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, immigration growth, and transfers from state programs.

The remainder of this chapter presents brief descriptions of the AFDC/TANF, Food Stamp and SSI programs and highlights some of the recent legislative changes that will affect program participation and expenditures over time. (Effects from some of the Food Stamp Program changes, in particular, under PRWORA are already reflected in the data.) National caseload and expenditure trend information on each of the three programs is included, as well as state-by-state trend tables on each program and information on the characteristics of participants in each program.

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who have been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother is absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands operated an AFDC program. States defined “need,” set their own benefit levels, established (within federal limitations) income and resource limits, and administered the program or supervised its administration. States were entitled to unlimited federal funds for reimbursement of benefit payments, at “matching” rates which were inversely related to state per capita income. States were required to provide aid to all persons who were in classes eligible under federal law and whose income and resources were within state-set limits.

AFDC enrollments and benefit outlays have generally increased in times of economic recession and declined in times of economic growth. Both caseloads and outlays rose to all-time high levels in fiscal year 1994. That year a monthly average of 14.2 million persons (9.6 million children) in 5 million families received benefits totaling $22.8 billion. AFDC participation then fell to 12.6 million persons in fiscal year 1996.

Recent Legislative Changes. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminated the AFDC cash welfare and other related programs (AFDC administration, the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program and the Emergency Assistance program) and created in their place a cash welfare block grant called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Its purpose is to increase state flexibility in providing assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for at home; end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work and marriage; prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families. The implementation date for the TANF block grant was July 1, 1997, although states could, and most did, begin their block grant programs sooner.

Spending through the TANF block grant is capped and funded at $16.4 billion per year, slightly above fiscal year 1995 federal expenditures for the four component programs. Each year between 1996 and 2002, the basic block grant provides each state with the highest of recent annual funding levels it received for the four constituent programs to operate welfare programs that stress work instead of government dependence. To receive each year’s full TANF block grant, a state must spend in the previous year on behalf of TANF-eligible families a sum equal to 75 percent of state funds used in fiscal year 1994 on the replaced programs (its “historic” level of welfare expenditures). If a state fails to meet work participation rates, its required “maintenance of effort” spending rises to 80 percent. To assist in recessions or other emergencies, states that maintain 100 percent of fiscal year 1994 AFDC-related spending are eligible to receive matching grants from a $2 billion contingency fund.

The new law gives states wide latitude in developing innovative programs that will get families off welfare and into jobs. States set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels. TANF block grant funds are guaranteed payments to states, but can be reduced if states fail to meet specified requirements such as meeting work participation requirements and ensuring that funds are spent on children and families. In addition, states are prohibited from using federal cash welfare block grant funds to: (1) provide cash or noncash TANF benefits to families in which an adult has already received assistance through the block grant for 5 years with an exemption of 20 percent of the caseload, (2) pay TANF benefits to noncitizens (including legal immigrants) arriving after the date of enactment (August 22, 1996) during their first 5 years in the United States1, and (3) pay benefits to parents who fail to participate in work or a state-designed welfare-to-work program after 24 months (or shorter at state option) of receiving cash welfare. The new law also gives states wide flexibility to combat out-of-wedlock births, which are related to increased welfare use and long-term dependence. They may deny or offer aid to two-parent families or to any group; however, if states offer TANF to unmarried teen parents they must require them to live at home or in another adult-supervised setting and attend school in order to be eligible for payments.

AFDC/TANF Program Data. The following tables and figures present a variety of data about the AFDC program:

  • Tables A-1 through A-5 and Figures A-1 through A-3 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the AFDC program. As noted above, the transition from AFDC to TANF began in some states as early as October 1996 and was completed by July 1, 1997. As a result, fiscal year 1997 data reflect some TANF program experience, although it is much too early to draw any conclusions about TANF trends;
  • Figure A-4 and Table A-6 present some demographic characteristics of the AFDC caseload; and
  • Tables A-7 through A-13 present some state-by-state trend data on the AFDC program, plus provisional 1997 data that reflect the phasing out of AFDC and the phasing in of TANF.

Table A-1 presents information on the average monthly number of AFDC families and recipients for each fiscal year since 1970 through Fiscal Year 1997. The U.S. caseload peaked at record highs in 1994, with an average 14.2 million recipients in over 5 million families receiving AFDC benefits each month. Since then the caseload has declined about 22 percent -- by a little over 1 million families and 3.2 million recipients. Preliminary data for the first several months of 1998 suggest that the caseload has continued to decline during the first year of TANF implementation falling as low as 8.4 million recipients in 3.0 million families in June 1998, as shown in Table A-10. (Because data on the demographic characteristics of the TANF caseload are not available, most of the other tables in this Appendix present data through June 1997). As shown on Table A-2, the average monthly benefit per recipient has continued the steady decline (in 1997 dollars) which began in 1988; recipients received an average 23 percent less in AFDC/TANF benefits (in 1997 dollars) in 1997 than in 1988.

Table A-1. Trends in AFDC/ TANF Enrollments, 1962 – 1997 1

  Average Monthly Number (In thousands) Children as Average
Total Families 2 Unemployed Total Total of Children
Total Families Parent

1 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997

2

3 Based on data for the first 9 months of the fiscal year.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, (Available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/).

1962   3,593 49   2,778 77.3  
1963   3,834 54   2,896 75.5  
1964   4,059 60   3,043 75.0  
1965   4,323 69   3,242 75.0  
1966   4,472 62   3,369 75.3  
1967   4,718 58   3,561 75.5  
1968   5,348 67   4,011 75.0  
1969   6,147 66   4,591 74.7  
1970   7,429 78   5,494 74.0  
1971   9,556 143   6,963 72.9  
1972   10,632 134   7,698 72.4  
1973   11,038 120   7,965 72.2  
1974   10,845 95   7,824 72.1  
1975   11,067 101   7,928 71.6  
1976   11,339 135   8,156 71.9  
1977   11,108 149   7,818 70.4  
1978   10,663 128   7,475 70.1  
1979   10,311 114   7,193 69.8  
1980   10,597 141   7,320 69.1  
1981   11,160 209   7,615 68.2  
1982   10,431 232   6,975 66.9  
1983   10,659 272   7,051 66.1  
1984   10,866 287   7,153 65.8  
1985   10,813 261   7,165 66.3  
1986   10,995 254   7,300 66.4  
1987   11,065 236   7,381 66.7  
1988   10,920 210   7,325 67.1  
1989   10,935 193   7,370 67.4  
1990   11,460 204   7,755 67.7  
1991   12,595 268   8,515 67.6  
1992   13,625 322   9,225 67.7  
1993   14,143 359   9,539 67.6  
1994   14,226 363   9,590 67.6  
1995   13,659 335   9,275 67.9  
1996   12,644 301   8,673 68.6  
1997   11,015 275 1,158 3 3 70.6 2.0 3

Figure A-1. AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance 1

Figure A-1. AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance

1 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.

Note: Shaded areas are periods of recession. Effective July 1, 1981 families with incomes greater than 150 percent of a State's standard of need were no longer eligible for income assistance; this income cut-off was raised to 185 percent in 1984. Last data point plotted is June 1997 for U-P and Basic Families and March 1998 for Total Families.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation.


Figure A-2. Average Number of Children per Family For Families with Related Children Under 18 by Living Arrangement, 1960 – 1996

(In millions)

Figure A-2. Average Number of Children per Family For Families with Related Children Under 18 by Living Arrangement, 1960 – 1996

Note: For 1960-74 the average number of children per married-couple family is estimated based on all male-headed families of which during this period they comprised 98-99 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992-1993 and earlier years; U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1996," Current Population Reports, Series P60-198 and earlier years.


Table A-2. Trends in AFDC/TANF Average Monthly Payments, 1962 – 1997 1

Fiscal Year Monthly Benefit per Recipient Average Number of Persons per Family Monthly Benefit per Family
(not reduced by Child Support)
Weighted Average2 Monthly Benefit
(per 3-person Family)
Current Dollars 1997 Dollars Current Dollars 1997 Dollars Current Dollars 1997 Dollars

1 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.

2 The maximum benefit for a 3-person family in each state is weighted by that state’s share of total AFDC families.

3 Estimated based on the weighted average benefit for a 4-person family.

Note: AFDC benefit amounts have not been reduced by child support collections. Constant dollar adjustments to 1997 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year price index.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993 and earlier years along with unpublished data.

1962 $31 $152 3.9 $121 $593 NA NA
1963 31 151 4.0 126 608 NA NA
1964 32 152 4.1 131 626 NA NA
1965 34 158 4.2 140 659 NA NA
1966 35 161 4.2 146 670 NA NA
1967 36 162 4.1 150 670 NA NA
1968 40 171 4.1 162 698 NA NA
1969 43 179 4.0 173 717 1863 774
1970 46 181 3.9 178 705 1943 769
1971 48 181 3.8 180 683 2013 761
1972 51 188 3.6 187 684 2053 751
1973 53 186 3.5 187 656 2133 747
1974 57 183 3.4 194 627 2293 740
1975 63 186 3.3 209 616 243 717
1976 71 195 3.2 226 622 257 708
1977 78 200 3.1 241 619 271 696
1978 83 200 3.0 249 603 284 685
1979 87 193 2.9 257 570 301 667
1980 94 187 2.9 274 545 320 638
1981 96 174 2.9 277 501 326 590
1982 103 174 2.9 300 508 331 560
1983 106 172 2.9 311 503 336 544
1984 110 171 2.9 321 499 352 546
1985 112 168 2.9 329 493 369 553
1986 116 169 2.9 339 495 383 560
1987 123 175 2.9 359 511 393 559
1988 127 174 2.9 370 506 404 552
1989 131 171 2.9 381 497 412 538
1990 135 167 2.9 389 483 421 523
1991 135 159 2.9 388 458 425 502
1992 136 156 2.9 389 446 419 480
1993 131 146 2.8 373 415 414 461
1994 134 145 2.8 376 408 420 451
1995 134 142 2.8 377 397 418 441
1996 135 138 2.8 374 384 422 433
1997 134 134 2.8 373 373 420 420

Figure A-3. Average Monthly AFDC Benefit By Family and Recipient in Current and Constant Dollars

Figure A-3. Average Monthly AFDC Benefit By Family and Recipient in Current and Constant Dollars

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993, and unpublished data.


Table A-3. Total, Federal, and State AFDC/TANF Expenditures, 1970 – 1997 1

[In millions of current and 1997 dollars]

Fiscal Year Federal Share
(Current Dollars)
State Share
(Current Dollars)
Total
(Current Dollars)
Total
(Constant 97 Dollars 4)
Benefits Administrative Benefits Administrative Benefits Administra- tive Benefits Administrative

1 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Spending categories not entirely equivalent.

2 Includes expenditures for services.

3 Administrative expenditures only.

4 Constant dollar adjustments to 1997 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year price index.

5 Provisional data, subject to change.

Note: Benefits do not include emergency assistance payments and have not been reduced by child support collections. Foster care payments are included from 1971 to 1980. Beginning in fiscal year 1984, the cost of certifying AFDC households for food stamps is shown in the food stamp program’s appropriation under the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Administrative costs include: Child Care administration, Work Program, ADP, FAMIS, Fraud Control, SAVE and other State and local administrative expenditures.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Program Systems.

1970 $2,187 $572 2 $1,895 $309 $4,082 $881 2 $16,146 $3,485
1971 3,008 271 2,469 254 5,477 525 20,740 1,988
1972 3,612 240 3 2,942 241 6,554 481 3 23,966 NA
1973 3,865 313 3,138 296 7,003 610 24,595 2,142
1974 4,071 379 3,300 362 7,371 740 23,844 2,394
1975 4,625 552 3,787 529 8,412 1,082 24,801 3,190
1976 5,258 541 4,418 527 9,676 1,069 26,705 2,950
1977 5,626 595 4,762 583 10,388 1,177 26,688 3,024
1978 5,724 631 4,898 617 10,621 1,248 25,599 3,008
1979 5,825 683 4,954 668 10,779 1,350 23,890 2,992
1980 6,448 750 5,508 729 11,956 1,479 23,823 2,947
1981 6,928 835 5,917 814 12,845 1,648 23,273 2,986
1982 6,922 878 5,934 878 12,857 1,756 21,764 2,973
1983 7,332 915 6,275 915 13,607 1,830 22,030 2,963
1984 7,707 876 6,664 822 14,371 1,698 22,318 2,637
1985 7,817 890 6,763 889 14,580 1,779 21,856 2,667
1986 8,239 993 6,996 967 15,235 1,960 22,274 2,866
1987 8,914 1,081 7,409 1,052 16,323 2,133 23,207 3,033
1988 9,125 1,194 7,538 1,159 16,663 2,353 22,759 3,214
1989 9,433 1,211 7,807 1,206 17,240 2,417 22,471 3,150
1990 10,149 1,358 8,390 1,303 18,539 2,661 23,019 3,304
1991 11,165 1,373 9,191 1,300 20,356 2,673 24,060 3,159
1992 12,258 1,459 9,993 1,378 22,250 2,837 25,524 3,255
1993 12,270 1,518 10,016 1,438 22,286 2,956 24,817 3,292
1994 12,512 1,680 10,285 1,621 22,797 3,301 24,731 3,581
1995 12,019 1,770 10,014 1,751 22,032 3,521 23,254 3,717
1996 11,065 1,633 9,346 1,633 20,411 3,266 20,962 3,354
1997 5 9,746 1,286 7,902 1,128 17,648 3,234 17,648 3,234

Table A-4. Federal and State AFDC Benefit Payments Under the Single Parent and Unemployed Parent Programs, Fiscal Years 1970 to 1996

[In millions of current and 1996 dollars]

Fiscal Year (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Single Parent1 Unemployed Parent Child Support Collections2 Net Benefits3 (1) + (2) minus (3) Net Benefits
(1996 dollars)4

1 Includes payments to two-parent families where one adult is incapacitated.

2 Total AFDC collections (including collections on behalf of foster care children) less payments to AFDC families.

3 Net AFDC benefits--Gross benefits less those reimbursed by child support collections.

4 Constant dollar adjustments to 1996 level were made using a CPI-U-XI fiscal year price index.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Financial Management.

1970 3,851 231 0 4,082 15,722
1971 4,993 412 0 5,405 19,882
1972 5,972 422 0 6,394 22,715
1973 6,459 414 0 6,873 22,504
1974 6,881 324 0 7,205 22,740
1975 7,791 362 0 8,153 23,363
1976 8,825 525 245 9,105 24,469
1977 9,420 617 395 9,642 24,121
1978 9,624 565 459 9,730 22,870
1979 9,865 522 584 9,803 21,156
1980 10,847 693 593 10,947 21,186
1981 11,769 1,075 659 12,185 21,472
1982 11,601 1,256 771 12,086 19,879
1983 12,136 1,471 865 12,742 20,128
1984 12,759 1,612 983 13,388 20,264
1985 13,024 1,556 901 13,679 19,967
1986 13,672 1,563 951 14,284 20,335
1987 14,807 1,516 1,070 15,252 21,115
1988 15,243 1,420 1,196 15,466 20,569
1989 15,889 1,350 1,286 15,952 20,246
1990 17,059 1,480 1,416 17,123 20,702
1991 18,529 1,827 1,603 18,753 21,583
1992 20,130 2,121 1,824 20,426 22,816
1993 19,988 2,298 1,971 20,315 22,028
1994 20,393 2,404 2,093 20,704 21,871
1995 19,820 2,212 2,215 19,817 20,367
1996 18,438 1,973 2,374 18,037 18,037

Table A-5. Number of AFDC/TANF Recipients, and Recipients as a Percentage of Various Population Groups, 1970 – 1997

Calender Year Total AFDC Recipients in the States & DC
(in thousands)
AFDC Child Recipients in the States & DC
(in thousands)
AFDC Recipients as a Percent of Total Population1 AFDC Recipients as a Percent of Poverty Population2 AFDC Recipients as a Percent of Pretransfer Poverty Population3 AFDC Child Recipients as a Percent of Total Child Population1 AFDC Child Recipients as a Percent of Children in Poverty2

1 Population numbers used as denominators are resident population. See Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106.

2 For poverty population data see Current Population Reports, Series P60-201.

3 The pretransfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families with related children under 18 years of age whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.

4 Average for January through June of 1997.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1996," Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

1970 8,303 6,104 4.1 32.7 NA 8.8 58.5
1971 10,043 7,303 4.9 39.3 NA 10.5 69.2
1972 10,736 7,766 5.1 43.9 NA 11.2 75.5
1973 10,738 7,763 5.1 46.7 NA 11.3 80.5
1974 10,621 7,637 5.0 45.4 NA 11.3 75.2
1975 11,131 7,928 5.2 43.0 NA 11.8 71.4
1976 11,098 7,850 5.1 44.4 NA 11.8 76.4
1977 10,856 7,632 4.9 43.9 NA 11.7 74.2
1978 10,387 7,270 4.7 42.4 NA 11.2 73.2
1979 10,140 7,057 4.5 38.9 53.1 11.0 68.0
1980 10,599 7,295 4.7 36.2 49.2 11.4 63.2
1981 10,893 7,397 4.7 34.2 47.1 11.7 59.2
1982 10,161 6,767 4.4 29.5 40.6 10.8 49.6
1983 10,569 6,967 4.5 29.9 41.9 11.1 50.1
1984 10,644 7,017 4.5 31.6 43.6 11.2 52.3
1985 10,672 7,073 4.5 32.3 45.0 11.3 54.4
1986 10,851 7,206 4.5 33.5 46.6 11.5 56.0
1987 10,842 7,240 4.5 33.6 46.7 11.5 55.9
1988 10,728 7,201 4.4 33.8 47.7 11.4 57.8
1989 10,799 7,286 4.4 34.3 47.6 11.5 57.9
1990 11,497 7,781 4.6 34.2 47.1 12.1 57.9
1991 12,728 8,601 5.0 35.6 49.1 13.2 60.0
1992 13,571 9,183 5.3 35.7 50.8 13.9 60.1
1993 14,007 9,439 5.4 35.7 48.5 14.1 60.2
1994 13,976 9,440 5.4 36.7 50.0 13.9 61.8
1995 13,240 9,009 5.0 36.3 50.1 13.1 61.5
1996 12,150 8,355 4.6 33.3 46.4 12.1 57.8
1997 10,236 7,340 4 3.8 28.8 NA 10.6 52.0

Figure A-4. Characteristics of AFDC Families

Figure A-4. Characteristics of AFDC Families

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of AFDC Recipients: Fiscal Year 1996 and earlier years, (Current data available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/content.htm).


Table A-6. AFDC Characteristics, 1969 – 1996

  May 1969 May 1975 March 1979 Fiscal year1
1983 1988 1990 1992 1994 1995 19965

1 Percentages are based on the average monthly caseload during the year. Hawaii and the territories are not included in 1983. Data after 1986 include the territories and Hawaii.

2 Calculated on the basis of total number of families.

3 For years after 1983, data are for adult female recipients.

4 States began collecting child support directly in 1975, removing one source of non-AFDC income.

5 Preliminary data.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of AFDC Recipients: Fiscal Year 1996 and earlier years, (Current data available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/content.htm).

Average Family Size (persons) 4.0 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8
Number of Child Recipients (percent of AFDC Cases):
    One 26.6 37.9 42.3 43.4 42.5 42.2 42.5 42.6 43.2 43.9
    Two 23.0 26.0 28.1 29.8 30.2 30.3 30.2 30.0 30.4 29.9
    Three 17.7 16.1 15.6 15.2 15.8 15.8 15.5 15.6 15.5 15.0
    Four or More 32.5 20.0 13.9 10.1 9.9 9.9 10.1 9.6 9.6 9.2
    Unknown NA NA NA 1.5 1.7 1.4 0.7 1.5 1.3 1.3
Basis for Eligibility (percent children):
    Parents Present:
        Incapacitated 11.72 7.7 5.3 3.4 3.7 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3
        Unemployed 4.62 3.7 4.1 8.7 6.5 6.4 8.2 8.7 7.8 8.3
    Parents Absent:                    
        Death 5.52 3.7 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.6
        Divorce or Separation 43.32 48.3 44.7 38.5 34.6 32.9 30.0 26.5 25.4 24.3
        No Marriage Tie 27.92 31.0 37.8 44.3 51.9 54.0 53.1 55.7 57.4 58.6
        Other Reason 3.52 4.0 5.9 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.0 2.6 2.5 2.4
        Unknown NA NA NA 1.7 NA NA 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.6
Mother's Employment Status (percent mothers):3
    Full-Time Job 8.2 10.4 8.7 1.5 2.2 2.5 2.2 3.2 3.7 4.7
    Part-Time Job 6.3 5.7 5.4 3.4 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.5 5.1 5.4
Presence of Income (percent families):
    With Earnings NA 14.6 12.8 5.7 8.4 8.2 7.4 8.7 9.5 11.1
    No Non-AFDC Income 56.0 71.1 80.64 86.84 79.64 80.14 78.94 78.0 77.3 76.0
Median Months on AFDC
    Since Most Recent Opening 23.0 31.0 29.0 26.0 26.3 23.0 22.5 21.5 23.2 23.6
Proportion of Households (percent families):
    Living in Public Housing 12.8 14.6 NA 10.0 9.6 9.6 9.2 8.3 8.0 8.8
    Participating in Food Stamp Or Donated Food Program 52.9 75.1 75.1 83.0 84.6 85.6 87.3 88.7 89.8 89.3
    Incld. Non-Recipient Members 33.1 34.8 NA 36.9 36.8 37.7 38.9 46.4 48.3 49.9

Table A-7. AFDC/TANF Assistance by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1978 – 1997

[Millions of dollars]

  1978 1982 1986 1988 1992 1994 1996 19971
United States $10,621 $12,857 $15,235 $16,663 $22,251 $22,797 $20,411 $17,648

1 Provisional.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Program Support, Office of Management Services, unpublished data from the ACF-196 TANF Report and ACF-231 AFDC Line by Line Report.

Alabama $78 $72 $68 $62 $85 $92 $75 $64
Alaska 17 32 46 54 96 113 107 99
Arizona 30 49 79 103 243 266 228 187
Arkansas 51 34 48 53 61 57 52 48
California 1,813 2,734 3,574 4,091 5,828 6,088 5,908 5,036
Colorado 74 87 107 125 163 158 129 108
Connecticut 169 210 223 218 377 397 323 321
Delaware 28 28 25 24 37 40 35 31
Dist. of Columbia 91 86 77 76 102 126 121 105
Florida 145 207 261 318 733 806 680 544
Georgia 103 172 223 266 420 428 385 316
Guam 3 4 4 3 8 12 14 11
Hawaii 83 88 73 77 125 163 173 163
Idaho 21 20 19 19 24 30 30 20
Illinois 700 802 886 815 883 914 833 707
Indiana 118 139 148 167 218 228 154 126
Iowa 107 127 170 155 164 169 131 120
Kansas 73 81 91 97 119 123 98 112
Kentucky 122 123 104 143 213 198 191 181
Louisiana 97 127 162 182 182 168 130 117
Maine 51 59 84 80 118 108 99 90
Maryland 166 213 250 250 333 314 285 232
Massachusetts 476 468 471 558 751 730 560 472
Michigan 780 1,064 1,248 1,231 1,162 1,132 779 754
Minnesota 165 235 322 338 387 379 333 228
Mississippi 33 55 74 85 89 82 68 60
Missouri 152 176 209 215 274 287 254 219
Montana 15 19 37 41 46 49 46 43
Nebraska 38 49 62 56 65 62 54 49
Nevada 8 12 16 20 41 48 48 40
New Hampshire 21 25 20 21 54 62 50 44
New Jersey 489 513 509 459 527 531 463 426
New Mexico 32 45 51 56 106 144 153 131
New York 1,689 1,641 2,099 2,140 2,944 2,913 2,929 2,657
North Carolina 138 143 138 206 335 353 300 270
North Dakota 14 14 20 22 28 26 21 19
Ohio 441 606 804 805 984 1,016 763 697
Oklahoma 74 74 100 119 169 165 122 94
Oregon 148 100 120 128 200 197 155 175
Pennsylvania 726 740 389 747 906 935 822 702
Puerto Rico 25 65 33 67 75 74 63 45
Rhode Island 59 70 79 82 128 136 125 118
South Carolina 52 76 103 91 119 115 101 72
South Dakota 18 17 15 21 25 25 22 18
Tennessee 77 74 100 125 206 215 190 130
Texas 122 118 281 344 517 544 496 365
Utah 41 47 55 61 76 77 64 58
Vermont 21 38 40 40 67 65 56 53
Virgin Islands 2 3 2 2 4 4 4 3
Virginia 136 166 179 169 225 253 199 161
Washington 175 240 375 401 606 610 585 499
West Virginia 53 56 109 107 120 126 102 89
Wisconsin 260 407 444 506 453 425 291 206
Wyoming 6 9 16 19 27 21 17 12

Table A-8. Comparison of Federal Funding for AFDC and Related Programs and Family Assistance Grants Under PRWORA

[In millions]

State FY 1996 Grants for AFDC, EA & JOBS1 FY 1997 State Family Assistance Grant2 Increase from FY 1996 Level Percent Increase from FY 1996 Level
United States $14,931 $16,489 $1,558 10.4

1 Excludes IV-A child care. AFDC benefits include the Federal share of child support collections to be comparable to the Family LAssistance Grant; 1996 expenditures as reported through February 25, 1997.

2 Does not include additional funds authorized under P.L. 104-327.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Legislative Affairs and Budget.

Alabama $75.9 $93.3 $17.4 22.9
Alaska 58.7 63.6 4.9 8.4
Arizona 197.8 222.4 24.7 12.5
Arkansas 51.9 56.7 4.9 9.4
California 3,622.8 3,733.8 111.1 3.1
Colorado 158.3 136.1 -22.3 -14.1
Connecticut 215.3 266.8 51.5 23.9
Delaware 35.2 32.3 -2.9 -8.2
Dist of Columbia 70.8 92.6 21.8 30.8
Florida 497.5 562.3 64.8 13.0
Georgia 288.4 330.7 42.3 14.7
Hawaii 97.9 98.9 1.0 1.0
Idaho 31.3 31.9 0.6 2.0
Illinois 601.1 585.1 -16.0 -2.7
Indiana 133.1 206.8 73.7 55.3
Iowa 128.9 131.5 2.7 2.1
Kansas 89.8 101.9 12.2 13.6
Kentucky 157.2 181.3 24.0 15.3
Louisiana 114.3 164.0 49.7 43.5
Maine 74.8 78.1 3.3 4.5
Maryland 214.3 229.1 14.8 6.9
Massachusetts 353.1 459.4 106.3 30.1
Michigan 632.2 775.4 143.1 22.6
Minnesota 220.8 268.0 47.1 21.3
Mississippi 70.3 86.8 16.4 23.4
Missouri 195.4 217.1 21.7 11.1
Montana 40.4 45.5 5.1 12.7
Nebraska 56.0 58.0 2.0 3.6
Nevada 41.4 44.0 2.6 6.3
New Hampshire 34.7 38.5 3.8 11.1
New Jersey 383.2 404.0 20.9 5.4
New Mexico 132.1 126.1 -6.0 -4.6
New York 2,160.7 2,442.9 282.3 13.1
North Carolina 312.6 302.2 -10.4 -3.3
North Dakota 25.7 26.4 0.7 2.9
Ohio 543.7 728.0 184.3 33.9
Oklahoma 118.2 148.0 29.8 25.2
Oregon 142.0 167.9 25.9 18.2
Pennsylvania 770.1 719.5 -50.6 -6.6
Rhode Island 89.5 95.0 5.5 6.2
South Carolina 94.4 100.0 5.6 5.9
South Dakota 20.2 21.9 1.7 8.2
Tennessee 137.4 191.5 54.1 39.3
Texas 419.0 486.3 67.2 16.0
Utah 64.7 76.8 12.1 18.8
Vermont 42.4 47.4 5.0 11.7
Virginia 121.4 158.3 36.9 30.4
Washington 415.4 404.3 -11.1 -2.7
West Virginia 87.7 110.2 22.5 25.7
Wisconsin 276.4 318.2 41.8 15.1
Wyoming 15.0 21.8 6.8 45.5

Table A-9. Average Monthly AFDC Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997

[In thousands]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97
United States 11,130 11,160 10,813 10,934 13,625 14,226 12,644 10,941 29.3 -22.6
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Time Trends, FY 1984-1995, and unpublished data.
Alabama 169 171 151 129 142 132 105 86 8.3 -38.6
Alaska 11 16 16 19 32 38 36 35 87.3 -2.8
Arizona 58 62 72 105 181 201 172 147 86.5 -25.0
Arkansas 95 84 64 70 75 69 58 53 4.4 -26.9
California 1,434 1,523 1,619 1,763 2,307 2,639 2,626 2,404 39.7 -2.4
Colorado 92 82 79 97 122 119 99 80 26.6 -35.4
Connecticut 135 142 122 106 157 166 162 154 52.1 -4.4
Delaware 31 33 24 19 26 27 23 22 44.2 -20.2
Dist. of Columbia 96 81 58 48 60 74 70 66 39.4 -0.7
Florida 242 277 271 327 601 669 561 451 112.5 -35.0
Georgia 248 236 239 266 388 393 353 282 49.8 -29.2
Guam 4 6 6 4 5 7 8 8 33.6 42.5
Hawaii 56 62 51 43 50 62 67 71 30.6 27.2
Idaho 20 20 17 17 20 23 23 16 26.6 -24.4
Illinois 771 709 735 632 688 712 655 580 9.0 -15.8
Indiana 165 172 165 147 199 216 148 122 43.0 -42.0
Iowa 95 110 123 98 103 110 89 78 3.6 -22.6
Kansas 76 74 67 74 85 87 68 54 19.2 -39.0
Kentucky 202 175 160 156 229 208 175 158 44.4 -29.8
Louisiana 218 216 230 277 274 248 236 187 -5.0 -28.6
Maine 60 57 57 51 68 64 56 49 32.8 -26.8
Maryland 213 221 195 176 221 222 204 163 25.6 -26.3
Massachusetts 373 344 235 242 310 307 237 207 34.6 -36.3
Michigan 651 759 691 640 674 666 527 449 7.5 -34.8
Minnesota 131 149 152 164 192 187 171 157 17.1 -18.1
Mississippi 174 176 155 179 177 159 129 102 -4.0 -40.3
Missouri 265 215 197 203 251 263 232 197 28.7 -24.7
Montana 18 20 22 28 32 35 31 27 24.9 -22.4
Nebraska 34 39 44 41 48 45 39 37 17.6 -23.6
Nevada 12 14 14 20 32 38 38 29 74.9 -16.3
New Hampshire 25 24 14 13 28 30 24 20 131.9 -33.1
New Jersey 449 469 367 298 353 335 288 251 17.3 -28.2
New Mexico 55 56 51 59 88 102 101 81 62.6 -14.6
New York 1,247 1,108 1,112 979 1,117 1,255 1,184 1,048 22.2 -12.4
North Carolina 200 201 166 200 313 333 278 243 67.1 -27.3
North Dakota 14 13 12 15 18 16 13 11 21.1 -38.4
Ohio 563 590 673 629 749 685 546 494 14.2 -31.3
Oklahoma 89 91 82 103 135 131 105 82 34.0 -40.7
Oregon 122 92 74 87 116 114 87 62 34.8 -46.9
Pennsylvania 655 643 561 523 594 620 544 461 16.3 -24.2
Puerto Rico 188 172 173 185 194 183 155 144 2.6 -24.4
Rhode Island 53 55 44 42 59 63 58 55 47.3 -11.7
South Carolina 140 157 120 107 140 140 119 90 36.4 -38.8
South Dakota 24 19 16 19 20 19 16 13 6.2 -33.2
Tennessee 188 174 155 195 266 300 260 184 59.0 -40.7
Texas 315 325 363 540 758 788 684 574 44.8 -26.6
Utah 37 42 38 44 52 50 40 34 20.6 -35.6
Vermont 22 25 22 20 29 28 25 23 44.7 -19.3
Virgin Islands 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 11.1 20.3
Virginia 173 175 154 146 188 195 162 130 33.4 -33.1
Washington 143 155 178 219 273 292 274 254 31.4 -11.8
West Virginia 64 81 106 109 119 114 95 82 8.9 -31.2
Wisconsin 201 241 288 245 244 226 170 120 -3.3 -49.4
Wyoming 7 7 10 14 19 16 13 7 32.8 -59.9

Table A-10. AFDC Caseload by State, October 1989 to June 1998 Peak

[In thousands]

State Peak Caseload Oct ‘89 to June ‘98 Date Peak Occurred Oct ’89 to June ‘98 June ‘97 Caseload June ‘98 Caseload Percent Decline1 From June ‘97 Percent Decline From Peak
Alabama 52.3 Mar-93 32.0 22.7 29.3 56.7
Alaska 13.4 Apr-94 12.0 10.1 16.2 24.5
Arizona 72.8 Dec-93 52.5 37.0 29.5 49.1
Arkansas 27.1 Mar-92 20.7 12.9 37.6 52.5
California 933.1 Mar-95 789.9 689.4 12.7 26.1
Colorado 43.7 Dec-93 28.7 19.8 30.8 54.7
Connecticut 61.9 Mar-95 55.5 41.0 26.1 33.8
Delaware 11.8 Apr-94 9.5 6.7 28.7 42.9
Dist. of Columbia 27.5 Apr-94 23.7 20.5 13.6 25.5
Florida 259.9 Nov-92 160.6 98.7 38.5 62.0
Georgia 142.8 Nov-93 98.2 69.8 28.9 51.1
Guam 2.6 Sep-97 2.2 1.9 12.5 25.2
Hawaii 23.6 Jan-98 23.4 23.6 -0.9 0.0
Idaho 9.5 Mar-95 6.7 1.8 72.7 80.7
Illinois 243.1 Aug-94 191.6 164.2 14.3 32.5
Indiana 76.1 Sep-93 42.4 38.5 9.1 49.3
Iowa 40.7 Apr-94 28.4 24.2 14.8 40.6
Kansas 30.8 Aug-93 18.2 12.9 28.9 58.0
Kentucky 84.0 Mar-93 62.5 49.6 20.6 40.9
Louisiana 94.7 May-90 51.7 48.4 6.3 48.9
Maine 24.4 Aug-93 18.2 15.2 16.2 37.5
Maryland 81.8 May-95 55.0 46.0 16.4 43.8
Massachusetts 115.7 Aug-93 76.0 63.5 16.5 45.1
Michigan 233.6 Apr-91 145.8 115.4 20.8 50.6
Minnesota 66.2 Jun-92 52.3 48.7 7.0 26.5
Mississippi 61.8 Nov-91 36.4 20.8 42.9 66.4
Missouri 93.7 Mar-94 67.6 57.0 15.6 39.2
Montana 12.3 Mar-94 8.8 7.4 16.3 40.0
Nebraska 17.2 Mar-93 13.3 13.3 0.1 22.7
Nevada 16.3 Mar-95 11.7 9.9 15.6 39.5
New Hampshire 11.8 Apr-94 7.9 6.1 22.4 48.2
New Jersey 132.6 Nov-92 97.6 76.8 21.3 42.1
New Mexico 34.9 Nov-94 25.9 22.7 12.4 34.9
New York 463.7 Dec-94 371.0 324.8 12.5 29.9
North Carolina 134.1 Mar-94 95.6 68.0 28.9 49.3
North Dakota 6.6 Apr-93 4.0 3.2 20.6 51.9
Ohio 269.8 Mar-92 180.5 131.4 27.2 51.3
Oklahoma 51.3 Mar-93 28.3 22.3 21.2 56.6
Oregon 43.8 Apr-93 22.7 18.4 19.2 58.0
Pennsylvania 212.5 Sep-94 157.0 129.4 17.6 39.1
Puerto Rico 61.7 Jan-92 47.3 40.9 13.5 33.8
Rhode Island 22.9 Apr-94 19.5 19.0 2.8 17.1
South Carolina 54.6 Jan-93 30.3 23.3 23.4 57.4
South Dakota 7.4 Apr-93 5.0 3.7 25.7 49.3
Tennessee 112.6 Nov-93 64.4 57.1 11.4 49.3
Texas 287.5 Dec-93 204.0 132.5 35.0 53.9
Utah 18.7 Mar-93 11.6 10.5 9.7 43.9
Vermont 10.3 Apr-92 8.2 7.2 12.5 30.3
Virgin Islands 1.4 Dec-95 1.2 1.2 4.2 18.3
Virginia 76.0 Apr-94 50.9 40.8 19.9 46.3
Washington 104.8 Feb-95 91.4 75.0 17.9 28.5
West Virginia 41.9 Apr-93 28.7 13.4 53.4 68.1
Wisconsin 82.9 Jan-92 38.1 11.3 70.4 86.4
Wyoming 7.1 Aug-92 2.0 1.3 37.0 81.9
United States 5,098 Mar-94 3,789 3,031 20.0 40.5

1 Negative values denote percent increase.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Division of Data Collection and Analysis.

Table A-11. Average Number of AFDC Child Recipients By State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997 1

[In thousands]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 19971 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97
United States 7,818 7,614 7,165 7,370 9,226 9,611 8,671 7,781 29.7 -18.6

1 Data shown for 1997 are averages for the first nine months of the fiscal year because information on child recipients is currently
available only through June of 1997.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, unpublished data.

Alabama 130 122 105 92 101 96 79 69 9.2 -31.1
Alaska 8 11 10 13 20 24 23 23 82.3 -0.2
Arizona 44 45 50 74 126 136 118 105 82.1 -21.8
Arkansas 72 61 45 50 53 49 42 39 4.4 -24.4
California 977 1,009 1,070 1,186 1,602 1,804 1,805 1,701 43.7 -0.2
Colorado 63 56 53 66 82 80 68 60 26.1 -27.4
Connecticut 98 98 82 71 105 111 108 104 51.5 -4.1
Delaware 22 23 16 13 18 19 16 15 42.0 -19.3
Dist. of Columbia 66 56 43 38 42 51 48 47 20.4 2.6
Florida 179 197 191 235 417 463 395 339 103.3 -29.0
Georgia 189 171 166 187 268 274 251 216 47.9 -21.8
Guam 3 4 4 3 3 5 6 6 31.1 48.3
Hawaii 40 41 33 28 34 41 44 46 31.5 24.7
Idaho 13 14 11 11 13 16 16 14 24.3 -4.8
Illinois 543 491 493 432 472 486 456 414 9.3 -12.4
Indiana 116 120 111 100 133 145 104 86 39.8 -38.3
Iowa 65 72 77 63 67 72 59 53 4.9 -19.9
Kansas 54 52 45 50 57 59 48 40 17.9 -32.4
Kentucky 147 122 107 105 147 137 120 111 38.4 -22.9
Louisiana 155 158 163 195 195 180 162 138 -3.2 -26.8
Maine 41 39 36 32 42 40 35 32 31.3 -22.8
Maryland 154 149 126 117 149 151 140 117 27.4 -22.0
Massachusetts 249 222 152 154 208 197 153 136 35.3 -34.8
Michigan 417 493 441 414 441 439 354 312 8.6 -30.6
Minnesota 89 98 95 105 125 124 116 108 19.4 -13.8
Mississippi 127 129 112 129 128 116 96 81 -3.5 -34.5
Missouri 194 144 129 134 164 176 162 145 27.7 -15.5
Montana 13 14 15 18 21 23 21 18 26.2 -18.5
Nebraska 23 27 29 28 33 31 27 25 16.3 -22.3
Nevada 8 10 9 14 22 27 27 23 74.0 -7.5
New Hampshire 17 16 9 8 18 19 16 14 122.6 -27.1
New Jersey 316 322 247 205 241 228 195 174 16.3 -27.0
New Mexico 41 38 34 41 57 66 65 57 52.4 -7.9
New York 878 759 729 648 743 813 771 704 20.8 -10.0
North Carolina 150 141 113 136 210 223 191 171 64.1 -23.3
North Dakota 9 9 8 10 12 11 9 8 17.6 -32.6
Ohio 398 389 424 411 489 455 382 358 15.1 -24.3
Oklahoma 66 66 57 71 92 90 74 61 33.4 -35.7
Oregon 81 60 49 58 76 76 60 45 33.3 -41.8
Pennsylvania 470 438 369 348 397 417 368 325 17.1 -20.4
Puerto Rico 115 120 116 126 132 124 105 99 2.4 -23.6
Rhode Island 37 37 28 28 39 41 39 37 46.9 -9.3
South Carolina 99 111 84 77 100 102 89 69 37.5 -34.4
South Dakota 18 13 11 13 14 14 12 10 7.2 -26.3
Tennessee 131 122 105 133 180 203 181 137 63.1 -36.9
Texas 235 236 256 378 528 549 484 427 44.2 -21.8
Utah 22 27 24 28 34 33 27 24 22.7 -32.3
Vermont 17 16 14 12 18 17 16 15 41.3 -16.8
Virgin Islands 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 8.8 22.9
Virginia 122 120 103 100 129 134 114 96 33.6 -28.1
Washington 101 99 113 141 176 187 177 169 31.1 -8.5
West Virginia 50 62 64 67 73 72 62 55 10.1 -26.2
Wisconsin 141 159 181 161 165 153 123 94 -1.4 -41.0
Wyoming 5 5 7 9 13 11 9 6 34.4 -51.8

Table A-12. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Children by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 - 1997

[In percent]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC child recipients in each State during the given fiscal year as a percent of the resident population under 18 years of age as of July 1 of that year. The numerators are from Table A-11.

Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Alabama 11.0 10.7 9.7 8.6 9.5 8.9 7.4 6.4 9 -31
Alaska 5.4 8.3 5.9 7.3 10.9 12.8 12.5 12.2 69 -0
Arizona 5.8 5.7 5.9 7.6 11.9 12.1 9.6 8.2 62 -33
Arkansas 10.7 9.3 7.1 7.9 8.5 7.7 6.4 5.9 3 -28
California 15.3 15.7 15.6 15.6 19.1 20.8 20.3 19.0 28 -5
Colorado 7.8 6.8 6.1 7.6 8.8 8.4 6.8 5.9 16 -33
Connecticut 11.1 12.2 10.8 9.5 13.7 14.2 13.7 13.1 46 -6
Delaware 12.4 14.0 10.2 8.1 10.4 10.5 8.9 8.5 33 -21
Dist. of Columbia 40.7 40.0 33.9 30.7 36.8 44.6 44.0 43.9 30 10
Florida 7.7 8.2 7.6 8.4 13.4 14.1 11.6 9.8 78 -35
Georgia 11.4 10.4 10.1 10.8 14.9 14.6 12.8 10.9 38 -27
Hawaii 14.3 14.8 11.6 10.1 11.5 13.6 14.5 15.3 24 23
Idaho 4.4 4.3 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.6 4.6 3.9 15 -10
Illinois 16.0 15.4 16.1 14.5 15.6 15.8 14.4 13.0 7 -16
Indiana 6.9 7.6 7.5 6.9 9.2 9.8 7.0 5.8 40 -40
Iowa 7.5 8.9 10.2 8.8 9.3 9.9 8.2 7.3 4 -20
Kansas 8.1 8.1 6.9 7.6 8.4 8.6 7.0 5.8 14 -33
Kentucky 13.3 11.5 10.5 10.9 15.4 14.1 12.4 11.6 38 -23
Louisiana 11.6 11.8 12.2 15.5 15.9 14.6 13.4 11.6 -1 -25
Maine 12.2 12.3 11.7 10.4 13.8 13.1 11.8 10.9 32 -21
Maryland 12.3 13.0 11.4 10.2 12.2 12.0 11.1 9.2 18 -24
Massachusetts 15.5 15.3 11.2 11.4 15.1 13.9 10.6 9.4 31 -37
Michigan 14.4 18.3 17.7 16.9 17.7 17.5 14.1 12.5 6 -31
Minnesota 7.2 8.5 8.5 9.2 10.3 10.1 9.4 8.7 13 -16
Mississippi 15.4 16.1 14.0 17.1 17.1 15.4 12.7 10.8 -3 -35
Missouri 13.6 10.7 9.8 10.2 12.2 12.9 11.7 10.3 24 -18
Montana 5.4 6.0 6.1 7.9 9.0 9.7 8.9 8.0 22 -17
Nebraska 4.9 6.0 6.8 6.5 7.5 7.1 6.1 5.7 15 -24
Nevada 4.2 4.3 3.9 5.0 6.6 7.1 6.5 5.1 37 -26
New Hampshire 6.5 6.1 3.7 3.1 6.3 6.7 5.4 4.6 114 -29
New Jersey 14.8 16.6 13.5 11.3 12.8 11.7 9.9 8.7 10 -30
New Mexico 9.9 9.1 7.8 9.0 12.1 13.5 13.1 11.4 42 -11
New York 17.5 16.6 16.7 15.1 16.8 18.1 16.9 15.4 16 -12
North Carolina 8.8 8.7 7.1 8.5 12.5 12.7 10.4 9.2 54 -30
North Dakota 4.7 4.8 4.3 5.7 6.9 6.4 5.4 4.9 23 -30
Ohio 12.2 12.9 14.7 14.6 17.3 16.0 13.4 12.6 14 -24
Oklahoma 7.9 7.6 6.3 8.3 10.7 10.4 8.5 6.9 31 -37
Oregon 11.3 8.2 6.9 8.2 10.0 9.7 7.5 5.6 22 -45
Pennsylvania 14.1 14.4 12.9 12.4 13.9 14.4 12.8 11.3 15 -20
Rhode Island 14.3 15.6 12.6 12.1 16.9 17.7 16.7 15.7 43 -9
South Carolina 10.4 11.9 9.1 8.3 10.7 10.8 9.4 7.3 36 -36
South Dakota 8.3 6.5 5.7 6.7 7.0 6.6 5.9 5.3 3 -23
Tennessee 9.9 9.5 8.6 10.9 14.4 15.7 13.7 10.3 57 -39
Texas 5.6 5.4 5.4 7.9 10.4 10.4 8.8 7.6 34 -27
Utah 4.6 4.7 4.0 4.5 5.3 4.9 4.0 3.4 16 -35
Vermont 11.3 10.9 9.9 8.8 12.2 11.7 10.8 10.0 37 -17
Virginia 8.0 8.3 7.1 6.7 8.2 8.4 7.0 5.8 27 -31
Washington 9.1 8.6 9.7 11.5 12.9 13.3 12.4 11.6 17 -13
West Virginia 8.8 11.2 12.6 14.8 17.0 16.8 14.7 13.3 16 -23
Wisconsin 9.8 11.9 14.2 12.6 12.4 11.4 9.2 7.0 -5 -42
Wyoming 3.6 3.3 4.1 6.6 9.2 8.1 6.9 4.5 37 -50
United States 11.8 11.8 11.2 11.4 13.8 14.0 12.4 11.0 23 -22

Table A-13. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Total Population by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997

[In percent]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1997 1997 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97
United States 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.4 5.3 5.4 4.7 4.0 24 -25

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC recipients in each State during the given fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year. The numerators are from Table A-9.

Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Alabama 4.5 4.4 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.1 2.5 2.0 4 -40
Alaska 2.8 3.9 3.0 3.5 5.4 6.3 6.0 5.8 72 -5
Arizona 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.9 4.7 4.8 3.9 3.2 69 -34
Arkansas 4.3 3.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.3 2.1 1 -30
California 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.0 7.5 8.4 8.2 7.4 31 -6
Colorado 3.4 2.7 2.5 3.0 3.5 3.3 2.6 2.0 16 -41
Connecticut 4.4 4.5 3.8 3.2 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.7 53 -4
Delaware 5.3 5.5 3.9 2.9 3.8 3.9 3.2 3.0 36 -24
Dist. of Columbia 14.2 12.7 9.2 7.7 10.3 13.1 13.0 12.5 51 8
Florida 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.6 4.5 4.8 3.9 3.1 96 -39
Georgia 4.8 4.2 4.0 4.1 5.7 5.6 4.8 3.8 39 -35
Hawaii 6.1 6.3 4.9 3.9 4.4 5.3 5.6 6.0 23 24
Idaho 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.3 14 -31
Illinois 6.8 6.2 6.4 5.5 5.9 6.1 5.5 4.9 6 -17
Indiana 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.7 3.5 3.8 2.5 2.1 39 -44
Iowa 3.3 3.8 4.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.1 2.7 2 -23
Kansas 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.4 3.4 2.7 2.1 16 -40
Kentucky 5.7 4.8 4.3 4.2 6.1 5.4 4.5 4.0 40 -32
Louisiana 5.4 5.0 5.2 6.5 6.4 5.8 5.4 4.3 -6 -30
Maine 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.2 5.5 5.2 4.5 4.0 31 -27
Maryland 5.1 5.2 4.4 3.7 4.5 4.4 4.0 3.2 20 -28
Massachusetts 6.5 6.0 4.0 4.0 5.2 5.1 3.9 3.4 35 -37
Michigan 7.1 8.2 7.6 6.9 7.1 6.9 5.4 4.6 4 -36
Minnesota 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.3 4.1 3.7 3.3 12 -21
Mississippi 7.1 6.9 6.0 6.9 6.8 6.0 4.8 3.8 -6 -42
Missouri 5.5 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.0 4.3 3.6 25 -27
Montana 2.3 2.6 2.7 3.5 3.9 4.1 3.6 3.1 19 -26
Nebraska 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.2 15 -26
Nevada 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.8 2.4 2.6 2.3 1.8 44 -31
New Hampshire 2.9 2.5 1.4 1.2 2.5 2.7 2.1 1.7 128 -36
New Jersey 6.1 6.3 4.9 3.9 4.5 4.2 3.6 3.1 15 -30
New Mexico 4.5 4.2 3.5 3.9 5.6 6.2 5.9 4.7 51 -20
New York 7.0 6.3 6.2 5.4 6.2 6.9 6.5 5.8 21 -12
North Carolina 3.5 3.4 2.6 3.1 4.6 4.7 3.8 3.3 58 -32
North Dakota 2.1 2.0 1.8 2.4 2.9 2.6 2.1 1.8 23 -39
Ohio 5.2 5.5 6.3 5.8 6.8 6.2 4.9 4.4 12 -32
Oklahoma 3.1 2.9 2.5 3.3 4.2 4.0 3.2 2.5 31 -42
Oregon 5.0 3.5 2.8 3.1 3.9 3.7 2.7 1.9 24 -50
Pennsylvania 5.5 5.4 4.8 4.4 5.0 5.1 4.5 3.8 15 -24
Rhode Island 5.6 5.7 4.5 4.2 5.9 6.3 5.9 5.5 48 -11
South Carolina 4.7 4.9 3.6 3.1 3.9 3.8 3.2 2.4 30 -41
South Dakota 3.5 2.7 2.3 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.2 1.8 2 -35
Tennessee 4.3 3.8 3.3 4.0 5.3 5.8 4.9 3.4 52 -44
Texas 2.4 2.2 2.2 3.2 4.3 4.3 3.6 3.0 35 -32
Utah 2.8 2.8 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.0 1.6 10 -41
Vermont 4.5 4.8 4.2 3.5 5.1 4.8 4.3 3.9 41 -21
Virginia 3.3 3.2 2.7 2.4 3.0 3.0 2.4 1.9 26 -36
Washington 3.8 3.7 4.0 4.6 5.3 5.5 5.0 4.5 19 -17
West Virginia 3.3 4.1 5.5 6.0 6.6 6.3 5.2 4.5 8 -31
Wisconsin 4.3 5.1 6.1 5.0 4.9 4.5 3.3 2.3 -7 -51
Wyoming 1.6 1.4 2.0 3.0 4.1 3.4 2.7 1.5 30 -61

Food Stamp Program

The Food Stamp Program, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service, is the largest food assistance program in the country, reaching more poor individuals over the course of a year than any other public assistance program. In fiscal year 1997, 22.9 million persons were served and $19.6 billion in benefits were distributed. Unlike many other public assistance programs, the Food Stamp Program has few categorical requirements for eligibility, such as the presence of children, elderly or disabled individuals in a household. As a result, the program offers assistance to a large and diverse population of needy persons, many of whom are not eligible for other forms of assistance.

The Food Stamp Program was designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to the point where they can buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet. Participating households are expected to be able to devote 30 percent of their counted monthly cash income to food purchases. Food stamp benefits then make up the difference between the household’s expected contribution to its food costs and an amount judged to be sufficient to buy an adequate low-cost diet. This amount, the maximum food stamp benefit level, is derived from USDA’s lowest-cost food plan (the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP)).

The Federal government is responsible for virtually all of the rules that govern the program and, with limited variations these rules are nationally uniform, as are the benefit levels. Nonetheless, States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, through their local welfare offices, have primary responsibility for the day-to-day administration of the program2. They determine eligibility, calculate benefits, and issue food stamp allotments. The Food Stamp Act provides 100 percent Federal funding of food stamp benefits. States and other jurisdictions have responsibility for about half the cost of state welfare agency administration.

The Food Stamp Program has financial, employment/training-related and “categorical” tests for eligibility. The basic food stamp beneficiary unit is the “household.” Generally, individuals living together constitute a single food stamp household if they customarily purchase food and prepare meals in common. Members of the same household must apply together, and their income, expenses, and assets normally are aggregated in determining food stamp eligibility and benefits. Except for households composed entirely of AFDC, SSI, or general assistance recipients (who generally are automatically eligible for food stamps), monthly cash income is the primary food stamp eligibility determinant. Unless exempt, adult applicants for food stamps must register for work, typically with the welfare agency or a state employment service office. To maintain eligibility, they must accept a suitable job if offered one and fulfill any work, job search, or training requirements established by the administering welfare agencies.

Food stamp benefits are a function of a household’s size, its net monthly income, and maximum monthly benefit levels. Allotments are not taxable and food stamp purchases may not be charged sales taxes. Receipt of food stamps does not affect eligibility for or benefits provided by other welfare programs, although some programs use food stamp participation use food stamps as a “trigger” for eligibility and others take into account the general availability of food stamps in deciding what level of benefits to provide. In fiscal year 1997, monthly benefits averaged $71 a person and about $178 a household.

The size of the population eligible for food stamps is influenced by many factors, including changes in program rules (including immigration laws), changes in the economy, and demographics. Similarly, changes in the economy and changes in attitudes toward “welfare” affect the rate at which eligible individuals participate in the program and may also influence the average length of time spent in the program.

Recent Legislative Changes. Subtitle A of title VIII of the PRWORA contains major and extensive revisions to the Food Stamp Program, including provisions designed to strengthen work and other nonfinancial eligibility requirements and control future spending increases. The impact on program participation and expenditures resulting from some of those provisions are reflected in preliminary 1997 data, while the effects of others will be observable over time.

A new work requirement was added for able-bodied adult food stamp recipients without children. Unless exempt, no individual may be eligible for food stamps if, during the preceding 36-month period, the individual received food stamp benefits for any 3 months while not: (1) working at least 20 hours a week; (2) participating in and complying with a work program for at least 20 hours a week; or (3) participating in and complying with a workfare program. USDA was authorized to waive application of the work requirement to any group of individuals at the request of the state agency, if a determination is made that the area where they reside has an unemployment rate over 10 percent or does not have a sufficient number of jobs to provide them employment. The impacts were further moderated by provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33).

Separately, title IV of the act made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for Food Stamp benefits. Most qualified aliens (including legal immigrants -- illegal aliens are already ineligible) were barred from Food Stamps until citizenship. Subsequently, the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 [PL 105-185] restored food stamp eligibility to certain groups of qualified aliens who were legally residing in the United States before passage of PRWORA (August 22, 1996). The ban was lifted for children, disabled and people who were 65 on August 22, 1996.

Growth in future program expenditures was restrained by changes in the benefit structure for eligible participants, including a reduction in the maximum food stamp allotment. Other provisions of the act disqualify from eligibility those convicted of drug-related felonies and give states the option to disqualify individuals, both custodial and noncustodial parents, from food stamps when they do not cooperate with child support agencies or are in arrears in their child support.

Food Stamp Program Data. The following six tables and figures provide information about the Food Stamp Program:

  • Tables A-14 and A-15 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the Food Stamp program. As noted above, some PRWORA effects are reflected in the fiscal year 1997 data;
  • Figure A-5 and Table A-16 present some demographic characteristics of the food stamp caseload; and
  • Tables A-17 through A-19 present some state-by-state trend data on the Food Stamp program through fiscal year 1996.

Table A-14 presents information on the average monthly number of food stamp recipients for each fiscal year since 1970 through Fiscal Year 1997. The health of the economy has historically been a good predictor of the number of participants in the Food Stamp Program. Food stamp participation (excluding Puerto Rico) has continued to fall from its peak in of 28 million in March 1994 to an average of 22.9 million persons in 1997, reaching their lowest point since 1990.3 As shown in Table A-15, total program costs have also declined, reaching their lowest levels since 1990, after adjusting for inflation. Total program costs (including Puerto Rico) were $25.6 billion in Fiscal Year 1996 and declined by 11 percent in 1997 to $22.8 billion. The average monthly benefit per person has also declined and, after adjusting for inflation, is at the same level paid in 1981.

Table A-14. Trends in Food Stamp Participation, 1970 – 1997

Fiscal Year Total Food Stamp Participants1 (in thousands) Child Food Stamp Participants1 (in thousands) Participants as a Percent of Total Population2 Participants as a Percent of All Poor Persons2 Participants as a Percent of Pre-transfer Poverty Population3 Child Participants as a Percent of Total Child Population2 Child Participants as a Percent of Children in Poverty2

1 Total participants includes all participating States, the District of Columbia, and the territories. The number of child participants includes only the participating States and D.C. (the territories are not included). From 1970 to 1974 the number of participants includes the family food assistance program (FFAP) which was largely replaced by the Food Stamp program in 1975. The FFAP participants for these five years were: 3,977; 3,642; 3,002; 2,441; and 1,406 (all in thousands). The monthly average number of participants for all fiscal years (including 1970-76) is computed as an average from October of the prior calender year to September of the current year.

2 Includes all participating States and the District of Columbia only--the territories are excluded from both numerator and denominator. Population numbers used as denominators are the resident population—see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106. For the persons living in poverty used as denominators, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-201.

3 The pretransfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families or living alone whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.

4 The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.

5 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased in basis.

6 Participation figures in column 1 from 1982 on include enrollment in Puerto Rico’s Nutrition Assistance Program (averaging 1.4 to 1.5 million persons a month under the nutrition assistance grant and higher figures in earlier years under Food Stamps).

e Estimated value.

Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank, the 1996 Green Book, and U.S. Bureau of the Census,“Poverty in the United States: 1997," Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and earlier years.

1970 8,277 NA 4.1 32.6 NA NA NA
1971 13,042 NA 6.3 51.0 NA NA NA
1972 14,102 NA 6.7 57.7 NA NA NA
1973 14,641 NA 6.9 63.7 NA NA NA
1974 14,784 NA 6.9 63.2 NA NA NA
19754 18,308 NA 7.9 66.2 NA NA NA
1976 18,240 9,126 7.7 66.7 NA 13.8 88.8
1977 17,014 NA 7.1 62.7 NA NA NA
1978 15,988 NA 6.5 58.9 NA NA NA
19795 17,682 NA 7.1 60.9 57.1 NA NA
1980 21,082 9,493 8.4 65.5 60.7 15.5 85.6
1981 22,430 9,674 9.0 64.6 60.8 15.5 78.4
19826 22,055 9,545 8.8 59.0 56.3 15.3 70.3
19836 23,195 10,783 9.2 61.1 58.5 17.4 78.4
19846 22,384 10,372 8.8 61.7 58.5 16.8 78.2
19856 21,379 9,824 8.3 60.0 56.6 15.8 76.1
19866 20,909 9,846 8.1 59.9 56.2 15.7 76.5
19876 20,583 9,765 7.9 59.2 55.6 15.5 75.4
19886 20,095 9,363 7.6 58.6 55.2 14.8 75.1
19896 20,266 9,429 7.6 59.6 55.6 14.9 74.9
19906 21,547 10,127 8.0 59.7 55.7 15.8 75.4
19916 24,115 11,952 9.0 63.3 59.3 18.4 83.3
19926 26,886 13,349 9.9 66.7 64.0 20.2 87.3
19936 28,422 14,196 10.5 68.6 63.8 21.2 90.3
19946 28,844 14,391 10.5 72.1 66.8 21.2 94.1
19956 27,945 13,860 10.1 73.0 67.6 20.2 94.5
19966 26,870 13,189 9.6 69.9 64.7 19.1 91.2
19976 24,160 11,800e 8.5 64.2 NA 17.0e 83.6e

Table A-15 Trends in Food Stamp Expenditures, 1970 – 1997

Fiscal Year Total Federal Cost Benefits2 (Federal)
[In millions]
Administration1   Average Monthly Benefit per Person
 Current Dollars
[In millions]
 1997 Dollars3
[In millions]
Federal
[In millions]
State & Local
[In millions]
Total Cost
[In millions]
Current Dollars 1997 Dollars3

1 All Federal administrative costs of the Food Stamp Program and Puerto Rico's block grant are included: Federal matching for the various administrative and employment and training expenses of States and other jurisdictions, and direct Federal administrative costs. Beginning in 1984 the administrative cost of certifying AFDC households for food stamps are shown in the food stamp appropriation. Figures for Federal administrative costs beginning with fiscal year 1989 include only those paid out of the Food Stamp appropriation and the Food Stamp portion of the general appropriation for food program administration. Figures for earlier years include estimates of food stamp related Federal administrative expenses paid out of other Agriculture Department accounts. State and local costs are estimated based on the known Federal shares and represent an estimate of all administrative expenses of participating States (including Puerto Rico).

2 All benefit costs associated with the Food Stamp Program and Puerto Rico's block grant are included. The benefit amounts shown in the table reflect small downward adjustments for overpayments collected from recipients and, beginning in 1989, issued but unredeemed benefits. Over time, the figures reflect both changes in benefit levels and numbers of recipients.

3 Constant dollar adjustments to 1997 level were made using the CPI-U-X1 price index.

4 From 1970 to 1974 total Federal cost includes the cost of the family food assistance program (FFAP) which was largely replaced by the Food Stamp program in 1975. The FFAP amounts for these years were: $289, $321, $312, $255, and $205 (in millions).

5 The first fiscal year in which benefit and eligibility rules were, by law, nationally uniform and indexed for inflation.

6 The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.

7 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased in basis.

8 Beginning 1984 USDA took over from DHHS the administrative cost of certifying public assistance households for food stamps.

9 Includes funding for Puerto Rico's nutrition assistance grant; earlier years include funding for Puerto Rico under the regular food stamp program. Average benefit figures do not reflect the lower benefits in Puerto Rico under its nutrition assistance program.

Sources: Budget documents of the U.S. Department Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service and the 1996 Green Book .

1970 8664 3,427 550 27 20 886 9.00 35.60
1971 1,8974 7,184 1,523 53 40 1,937 12.60 47.70
19725 2,1824 7,980 1,797 73 55 2,237 13.50 49.40
1973 2,4664 8,661 2,131 80 60 2,526 14.60 51.30
1974 3,0474 9,857 2,718 124 95 3,142 17.60 56.90
19756 4,624 13,632 4,386 238 180 4,804 21.40 63.10
1976 5,692 15,708 5,327 365 275 5,967 23.90 66.00
1977 5,469 14,051 5,067 402 300 5,769 24.70 63.50
1978 5,573 13,433 5,139 434 325 5,898 26.80 64.60
19797 6,995 15,504 6,480 515 388 7,383 30.60 67.80
1980 9,224 18,379 8,721 503 375 9,599 34.40 68.50
1981. 11,308 20,488 10,630 678 504 11,812 39.50 71.60
19829 11,318 19,159 10,609 709 557 11,875 39.20 66.40
19839 12,733 20,616 11,955 778 612 13,345 43.00 69.60
19849 12,470 19,365 11,499 9718 805 13,275 42.70 66.30
19859 12,599 18,886 11,556 1,043 871 13,470 45.00 67.50
19869 12,528 18,316 11,415 1,113 935 13,463 45.60 66.70
19879 12,539 17,827 11,344 1,195 996 13,535 45.80 65.10
19889 13,289 18,150 11,999 1,290 1,080 14,369 49.80 68.00
19899 13,904 18,122 12,572 1,332 1,101 15,005 51.90 67.60
19909 16,512 20,502 15,090 1,422 1,174 17,686 59.00 73.30
19919 19,765 23,361 18,249 1,516 1,247 21,012 63.90 75.50
19929 23,539 27,003 21,883 1,656 1,375 24,914 68.50 78.60
19939 24,749 27,560 23,033 1,716 1,572 26,321 67.96 75.70
19949 25,600 27,772 23,811 1,789 1,643 27,243 69.01 74.90
19959 25,818 27,251 23,901 1,917 1,748 27,566 71.27 75.20
19969 25,591 26,282 23,607 1,984 1,842 27,433 73.22 75.20
19979 22,778 22,778 20,751 2,026 1,882 24,660 71.27 71.30

Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients

Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1996 and earlier years.


  • The percentage of food stamp households with earnings has stayed in a range of 18 to 23 percent, with an average over the years of 20 percent. Correspondingly, the percentage with gross monthly income below the poverty level has ranged from a low of 87 percent in 1980 to a high of 95 percent in the recession year 1982. During the 1990s, it has stayed almost constant at around 92 percent.
  • The percentage of households receiving food stamps with children has also been fairly constant at a little over 60 percent.
  • The percentage of food stamp households with public assistance income has ranged from a low of 65 percent in 1980 to a high of 73 percent in the recession year 1990.

Table A-16. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, 1980 - 1996

[In percent]

  Year
  19801 19821 19841 19861 19881 19901 19921 19941 19961

1 Survey was conducted in August in the years 1980-84 and during the summer in the years from 1986 to the present.

2 Public assistance income includes AFDC, SSI, and general assistance.

3 In 1996 female heads of household with children whose spouse is present comprised about 7 percent of all female heads of household with children.

4 Elderly members and heads of household include those age 60 or older.

* Less than 0.5 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1996 and earlier years.

With Gross Monthly Income:
    Below the Federal Poverty Levels 87 95 93 93 92 92 92 90 91
    Between the Poverty Levels and 130 Percent of the Poverty Levels 10 5 6 6 8 8 8 9 8
    Above 130 Percent of Poverty 2 * 1 * * * * 1 1
With Earnings 19 18 19 21 20 19 21 21 23
With Public Assistance Income2 65 69 71 69 72 73 66 69 67
    With AFDC/TANF Income NA 42 42 38 42 43 40 38 37
    With SSI Income 18 18 18 18 20 19 19 23 24
With Children 60 58 61 61 61 61 62 61 60
    And Female Heads of Household NA 45 47 48 50 51 51 51 50
        With No Spouse Present3 NA NA NA NA 39 37 44 43 43
With Elderly Members4 23 20 22 20 19 18 15 16 16
    With Elderly Female Heads of Household4 NA 14 16 15 14 11 9 11 NA
Average Household Size 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5

Table A-17. Value of Food Stamps Issued by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997

[Millions of dollars]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997
United States1 $5,067 $10,630 $11,556 $12,572 $21,883 $23,796 $23,607 $20,700

1 Totals include small amounts not allocated to individual states: $6 million in 1977, $26 million in 1985, and $4 million in 1992.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank.

Alabama $99 $293 $318 $276 $451 $456 $443 $393
Alaska 5 31 25 24 41 53 54 52
Arizona 45 125 121 176 377 418 377 316
Arkansas 66 138 126 130 207 212 225 214
California 333 604 639 747 1,760 2,395 2,559 2,378
Colorado 48 88 94 133 219 224 211 182
Connecticut 45 71 62 53 131 152 175 170
Delaware 26 27 22 19 42 48 95 91
Dist. of Columbia 8 47 40 36 70 86 47 41
Florida 261 502 368 455 1,306 1,324 1,296 1,061
Georgia 9 306 290 302 627 695 27 27
Guam 143 18 18 14 28 22 706 597
Hawaii 35 69 93 74 121 153 195 189
Idaho 285 35 36 37 53 57 1,034 933
Illinois 59 506 713 729 1,070 1,069 330 293
Indiana 29 204 242 185 373 415 141 125
Iowa 10 75 107 97 143 145 61 53
Kansas 15 52 64 80 133 146 135 112
Kentucky 126 268 332 300 430 416 418 372
Louisiana 134 270 365 484 677 642 597 512
Maine 29 69 62 48 109 111 115 103
Maryland 84 171 171 176 316 350 365 320
Massachusetts 147 191 173 154 315 330 294 262
Michigan 132 395 541 537 846 834 774 678
Minnesota 42 84 105 131 234 229 224 192
Mississippi 106 235 264 319 421 397 376 313
Missouri 69 183 212 255 447 482 482 401
Montana 9 23 31 36 52 56 59 55
Nebraska 11 31 44 50 78 79 78 72
Nevada 6 21 22 31 74 88 92 74
New Hampshire 13 27 15 12 45 46 42 35
New Jersey 157 280 260 232 433 486 513 449
New Mexico 40 90 88 100 182 194 200 168
New York 404 875 938 930 1,586 1,945 2,044 1,780
North Carolina 133 272 237 228 461 490 552 478
North Dakota 4 12 16 21 35 34 32 29
Ohio 262 508 697 751 1,102 1,076 944 750
Oklahoma 37 82 134 159 275 305 307 256
Oregon 42 133 142 150 226 241 260 216
Pennsylvania 204 490 547 554 916 1,001 983 865
Puerto Rico 581 879 786 871 973 1,050 1,102 1,134
Rhode Island 18 41 35 33 69 76 78 70
South Carolina 89 212 194 167 297 303 299 281
South Dakota 7 21 26 31 42 41 41 39
Tennessee 134 339 280 312 562 600 545 475
Texas 255 600 701 1,098 2,103 2,320 2,147 1,765
Utah 9 30 40 61 96 94 87 78
Vermont 11 22 20 17 37 44 43 40
Virgin Islands 12 21 23 14 19 23 451 25
Virginia 70 201 189 206 406 448 42 379
Washington 63 135 140 191 344 386 429 387
West Virginia 60 122 159 169 255 261 253 239
Wisconsin 38 99 148 157 236 220 200 158
Wyoming 3 7 15 18 26 27 28 23

Table A-18. Average Number of Food Stamp Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997

[In thousands]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97
United States 17,014 22,430 21,379 20,266 26,886 28,879 26,870 24,156 40 -15
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank.
Alabama 316 605 588 436 550 545 509 469 29 -16
Alaska 11 32 22 26 38 46 46 45 65 5
Arizona 140 210 206 264 457 512 427 364 85 -26
Arkansas 213 305 253 227 277 283 274 266 25 -7
California 1,345 1,605 1,615 1,776 2,558 3,155 3,143 2,815 61 -2
Colorado 147 175 170 211 260 268 244 217 29 -20
Connecticut 178 175 145 114 202 223 223 210 90 -3
Delaware 26 56 40 30 51 59 58 54 95 -7
Dist. of Columbia 98 101 72 58 82 91 93 90 48 4
Florida 728 957 630 668 1,404 1,474 1,371 1,192 125 -21
Georgia 459 654 567 485 754 830 793 698 67 -14
Guam 22 25 20 13 20 15 18 18 0 41
Hawaii 108 104 99 78 94 115 130 127 32 23
Idaho 33 64 59 61 72 82 80 70 30 -11
Illinois 922 984 1,110 990 1,156 1,189 1,105 1,020 19 -14
Indiana 196 405 406 285 448 518 390 348 74 -30
Iowa 108 163 203 168 192 196 177 161 17 -18
Kansas 62 108 119 128 175 192 172 149 47 -21
Kentucky 394 519 560 447 529 522 486 444 19 -16
Louisiana 425 574 644 725 779 756 670 575 7 -26
Maine 101 140 114 84 133 136 131 124 64 -11
Maryland 255 346 287 249 342 390 375 354 51 -5
Massachusetts 579 437 337 314 429 442 374 340 41 -23
Michigan 635 942 985 874 994 1,031 935 839 17 -18
Minnesota 158 202 228 245 309 318 295 260 29 -18
Mississippi 333 514 495 493 536 511 457 399 9 -26
Missouri 221 378 362 404 549 593 554 478 46 -19
Montana 27 47 58 56 66 71 71 67 26 -5
Nebraska 40 75 94 92 107 111 102 97 23 -14
Nevada 18 37 32 41 80 97 97 82 126 -12
New Hampshire 44 54 28 22 58 62 53 46 176 -24
New Jersey 493 608 464 353 494 545 540 490 50 -8
New Mexico 118 183 157 151 221 244 235 205 62 -16
New York 1,646 1,851 1,834 1,463 1,885 2,154 2,099 1,914 40 -6
North Carolina 428 605 474 390 597 630 631 586 61 -6
North Dakota 15 29 33 39 46 45 40 38 25 -22
Ohio 803 976 1,133 1,068 1,251 1,245 1,045 874 19 -31
Oklahoma 158 206 263 261 346 376 354 322 42 -13
Oregon 153 232 228 213 265 286 288 259 33 -9
Pennsylvania 843 1,071 1,032 916 1,137 1,208 1,124 1,009 29 -15
Puerto Rico 1,472 1,805 1,480 1,460 1,480 1,410 1,330 e 1,306 -1 -9
Rhode Island 79 88 69 57 87 94 91 85 62 -8
South Carolina 280 443 373 272 369 385 358 349 45 -11
South Dakota 26 46 48 50 55 53 49 47 11 -16
Tennessee 392 677 518 500 702 735 638 586 55 -24
Texas 823 1,226 1,263 1,634 2,454 2,726 2,372 2,034 63 -23
Utah 36 65 75 95 123 128 110 98 40 -26
Vermont 46 48 44 34 54 65 56 53 70 -9
Virgin Islands 25 34 32 16 16 20 31 20 8 15
Virginia 240 432 360 333 495 547 538 476 61 -11
Washington 212 271 281 321 431 468 476 442 44 -5
West Virginia 199 252 278 259 310 321 300 287 24 -11
Wisconsin 175 269 363 291 334 330 283 232 16 -31
Wyoming 9 15 27 27 33 34 33 29 25 -16

Table A-19. Food Stamp Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1997

[In percent]

  1977 1981 1985 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997 Percent Change
1989-93 1993-97

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of food stamp recipients in each State during the particular fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year. The numerator is from Table A-18.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Alabama 8.4 15.4 14.8 10.8 13.3 12.9 11.9 10.9 24 -19
Alaska 2.7 7.7 4.1 4.8 6.4 7.6 7.6 7.4 51 3
Arizona 5.8 7.5 6.5 7.3 11.8 12.3 9.6 8.0 68 -35
Arkansas 9.7 13.3 10.9 9.7 11.6 11.5 10.9 10.5 21 -10
California 6.0 6.6 6.1 6.1 8.3 10.1 9.9 8.7 51 -5
Colorado 5.5 5.9 5.3 6.5 7.5 7.3 6.4 5.6 19 -27
Connecticut 5.8 5.6 4.5 3.5 6.2 6.8 6.8 6.4 90 -3
Delaware 4.5 9.3 6.5 4.5 7.3 8.4 8.0 7.3 84 -12
Dist. of Columbia 14.5 15.9 11.4 9.4 14.1 16.0 17.2 17.1 60 14
Florida 8.2 9.4 5.5 5.3 10.4 10.6 9.5 8.1 107 -26
Georgia 8.8 11.7 9.5 7.6 11.2 11.8 10.8 9.3 55 -20
Hawaii 11.8 10.6 9.5 7.1 8.2 9.8 11.0 10.7 24 21
Idaho 3.8 6.7 5.9 6.1 6.7 7.2 6.7 5.8 17 -19
Illinois 8.1 8.6 9.7 8.7 10.0 10.1 9.3 8.6 16 -15
Indiana 3.6 7.4 7.4 5.2 7.9 9.0 6.7 5.9 69 -32
Iowa 3.7 5.6 7.2 6.1 6.9 6.9 6.2 5.7 15 -19
Kansas 2.7 4.5 4.9 5.2 6.9 7.5 6.7 5.7 44 -23
Kentucky 11.0 14.2 15.2 12.1 14.1 13.7 12.5 11.4 15 -19
Louisiana 10.6 13.4 14.6 17.0 18.2 17.6 15.4 13.2 7 -27
Maine 9.2 12.4 9.8 6.9 10.7 11.0 10.6 10.0 62 -11
Maryland 6.1 8.1 6.5 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.4 7.0 44 -8
Massachusetts 10.1 7.6 5.7 5.2 7.2 7.3 6.1 5.5 41 -25
Michigan 6.9 10.2 10.8 9.4 10.5 10.8 9.6 8.6 14 -20
Minnesota 4.0 4.9 5.5 5.7 6.9 7.0 6.3 5.6 24 -21
Mississippi 13.5 20.3 19.1 19.1 20.5 19.2 16.9 14.6 6 -28
Missouri 4.5 7.7 7.2 7.9 10.6 11.2 10.3 8.8 42 -22
Montana 3.6 5.9 7.1 7.0 8.1 8.3 8.1 7.6 20 -9
Nebraska 2.6 4.7 5.9 5.9 6.7 6.8 6.2 5.9 20 -17
Nevada 2.7 4.4 3.4 3.6 6.0 6.6 6.0 4.9 86 -27
New Hampshire 5.1 5.8 2.8 2.0 5.2 5.4 4.6 3.9 172 -27
New Jersey 6.7 8.2 6.1 4.6 6.3 6.9 6.8 6.1 48 -10
New Mexico 9.7 13.7 10.9 10.0 14.0 14.7 13.7 11.8 51 -22
New York 9.2 10.5 10.3 8.1 10.4 11.9 11.6 10.6 39 -6
North Carolina 7.5 10.2 7.6 5.9 8.7 8.9 8.6 7.9 52 -12
North Dakota 2.4 4.4 4.9 6.0 7.2 7.1 6.2 5.9 27 -22
Ohio 7.5 9.1 10.6 9.9 11.4 11.2 9.4 7.8 16 -32
Oklahoma 5.5 6.7 8.0 8.3 10.8 11.6 10.7 9.7 39 -15
Oregon 6.3 8.7 8.5 7.6 8.9 9.3 9.0 8.0 22 -14
Pennsylvania 7.1 9.0 8.8 7.7 9.5 10.0 9.3 8.4 28 -15
Rhode Island 8.3 9.3 7.2 5.7 8.7 9.4 9.2 8.6 63 -7
South Carolina 9.4 13.9 11.3 7.9 10.3 10.5 9.6 9.3 38 -15
South Dakota 3.8 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.3 6.6 6.4 7 -18
Tennessee 8.9 14.6 11.0 10.3 14.0 14.2 12.0 10.9 48 -28
Texas 6.2 8.3 7.8 9.7 13.9 14.8 12.4 10.5 51 -29
Utah 2.7 4.3 4.6 5.6 6.8 6.6 5.5 4.8 27 -32
Vermont 9.4 9.4 8.2 6.1 9.4 11.1 9.6 9.0 65 -11
Virginia 4.6 7.9 6.3 5.4 7.8 8.4 8.1 7.1 52 -15
Washington 5.6 6.4 6.4 6.8 8.4 8.8 8.6 7.9 30 -11
West Virginia 10.4 12.9 14.6 14.3 17.1 17.7 16.5 15.8 24 -11
Wisconsin 3.8 5.7 7.6 6.0 6.7 6.5 5.5 4.5 12 -33
Wyoming 2.1 3.0 5.4 6.0 7.2 7.2 6.9 6.0 23 -18
United States 7.1 9.0 8.3 7.6 9.9 10.5 9.6 8.5 37 -18

Supplemental Security Income

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons. To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability. Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18, unmarried, and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements. Individuals and couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels, which were $484 for an individual and $726 for a couple in fiscal year 1997. SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

SSI law requires that SSI applicants file for all other money benefits for which they may be entitled. Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the “program of last resort”-- after evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income “floor.” (The Social Security Administration, which administers the SSI program, works with recipients and helps them get any other benefits for which they are eligible.) As of December 1996, 37 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security benefits; Social Security benefits are the single highest source of income for SSI recipients.

No individual could receive both SSI payments and AFDC benefits; if eligible for both, the individual was required to choose which benefit to receive. Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit. The PRWORA does not specifically prohibit an individual’s receipt of both TANF benefits and SSI; states have complete authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels.

Except in California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash that is included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps. If all household members receive SSI, they do not need to meet the Food Stamp Program financial eligibility standards to participate in the program because they are categorically eligible. If SSI beneficiaries live in households where other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Recent Legislative Changes. Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress are likely to affect Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation and expenditures. Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibits SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability. This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment. It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

The PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program’s goal of providing benefits for severely disabled children while preventing children without serious impairments from receiving benefits. First, the act replaced the former law “comparable severity” test with a new definition of childhood disability based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment. Second, it discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which authorized subjective judgment to determine children’s eligibility for SSI. Third, it eliminated references to “maladaptive behavior” in the Listings of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function). The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996). Current beneficiaries receiving benefits due to an IFA or maladaptive behavior listing received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case is redetermined. All currently receiving benefits are subject to redetermination using the new eligibility criteria by February 28, 1998 (per P.L. 105-33, enacted August 5, 1997).

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits. Essentially, qualified aliens (including legal immigrants) are barred from SSI. Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which grandfathered immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA.

SSI Program Data. The following six tables and two figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables A-20 through A-23 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program;
  • Figures A-6 and A-7 present some demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload; and
  • Tables A-24 through A-26 present some state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 1996.

Table A-20 presents information on the number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 1997. Data on the total number of SSI recipients are shown, as well as recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adult age 18-64, and adult age 65 or older). From 1990 to 1994, growth in the total number of beneficiaries averaged 370 thousand per year, almost 6.5 percent per year. The increase slowed in 1995 and 1996, with the number of recipients peaking at 6.6 million beneficiaries in December 1996. In 1997 growth stopped and the number of recipients declined slightly, to 6.5 million in December 1997.

Recent trends in the changing composition of the SSI caseload continued through 1997, as shown in Table A-22. The number of aged beneficiaries continued to decline, both as an absolute number (from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to less than 1.4 million in December 1997) and as a proportion of the SSI caseload. The number of aged, as a percentage of all SSI participants, has dropped steadily, from 60.6 percent in December 1974 to 31.6 percent in December 1997. This relative decline is a result of very little change in the number of aged participants between December 1990 and December 1997 while the number of persons 18 to 64 receiving benefits grew by 45 percent during the same time period. Moreover, the number of children increased by 177 percent, from 340 thousand to 943 thousand, bringing them from 7 percent of the SSI caseload in 1990 to 15 percent in 1997. Many analysts attribute this growth to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case4, expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.

Table A-20. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments 1974 – 1997

[In thousands]

Date Total Eligibility Category Type of Recipient
Aged Blind and Disabled Children1 Adults
Total Blind Disabled Age 18-64 65 or Older

1 Includes students 18-21; there were 50,661 students 18-21 in December 1997.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).

Dec 1974 3,996 2,286 1,710 75 1,636 71 1,503 2,422
Dec 1975 4,314 2,307 2,007 74 1,933 128 1,678 2,508
Dec 1976 4,236 2,148 2,088 76 2,012 153 1,686 2,397
Dec 1977 4,238 2,051 2,187 77 2,109 175 1,709 2,353
Dec 1978 4,217 1,968 2,249 77 2,172 197 1,716 2,304
Dec 1979 4,150 1,872 2,278 77 2,201 212 1,692 2,246
Dec 1980 4,142 1,808 2,334 78 2,256 229 1,693 2,221
Dec 1981 4,019 1,678 2,341 79 2,262 230 1,668 2,121
Dec 1982 3,858 1,549 2,309 77 2,231 229 1,618 2,011
Dec 1983 3,901 1,515 2,386 79 2,307 236 1,662 2,003
Dec 1984 4,029 1,530 2,499 81 2,419 249 1,743 2,037
Dec 1985 4,138 1,504 2,634 82 2,551 265 1,841 2,031
Dec 1986 4,269 1,473 2,796 83 2,713 280 1,972 2,018
Dec 1987 4,385 1,455 2,930 83 2,846 289 2,081 2,015
Dec 1988 4,464 1,433 3,030 83 2,948 290 2,168 2,006
Dec 1989 4,593 1,439 3,154 83 3,071 296 2,271 2,026
Dec 1990 4,817 1,454 3,363 84 3,279 340 2,418 2,059
Dec 1991 5,118 1,465 3,654 85 3,569 439 2,600 2,080
Dec 1992 5,566 1,471 4,095 85 4,010 624 2,843 2,100
Dec 1993 5,984 1,475 4,509 85 4,424 771 3,101 2,113
Dec 1994 6,296 1,466 4,830 85 4,745 893 3,284 2,119
Dec 1995 6,514 1,446 5,068 84 4,984 974 3,425 2,115
Dec 1996 6,614 1,413 5,201 82 5,119 1,018 3,506 2,090
Dec 1997 6,495 1,362 5,133 81 5,052 943 3,499 2,054

Table A-21. Federal and State SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1997 1

[In millions of current and 1997 dollars]

Calender Year Total Benefits Federal Payments State Supplementation Administrative Costs
(fiscal year)
19972 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered

1 Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year.

2 Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of SSI, and Office of Budget, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1998 (available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).

1974 $16,222 $5,246 $3,833 $1,413 $1,264 $149 $285
1975 16,787 5,878 4,314 1,565 1,403 162 399
1976 16,390 6,066 4,512 1,554 1,388 166 500
1977 16,014 6,306 4,703 1,603 1,431 172 NA
1978 15,579 6,552 4,881 1,671 1,491 180 539
1979 15,345 7,075 5,279 1,797 1,590 207 610
1980 15,486 7,941 5,866 2,074 1,848 226 668
1981 15,307 8,593 6,518 2,076 1,839 237 718
1982 15,078 8,981 6,907 2,074 1,798 276 779
1983 15,154 9,404 7,423 1,982 1,711 270 830
1984 16,022 10,372 8,281 2,091 1,792 299 864
1985 16,498 11,060 8,777 2,283 1,973 311 953
1986 17,692 12,081 9,498 2,583 2,243 340 1,022
1987 18,298 12,951 10,029 2,922 2,563 359 976
1988 18,704 13,786 10,734 3,052 2,671 381 975
1989 19,389 14,980 11,606 3,374 2,955 419 1,051
1990 20,383 16,599 12,894 3,705 3,239 466 1,075
1991 21,829 18,524 14,765 3,759 3,231 529 1,257
1992 25,433 22,233 18,247 3,986 3,435 550 1,538
1993 27,276 24,557 20,722 3,835 3,270 566 1,467
1994 28,024 25,877 22,175 3,701 3,116 585 1,775
1995 29,096 27,628 23,919 3,708 3,118 590 1,973
1996 29,453 28,792 25,265 3,527 2,988 539 1,949
1997 29,052 29,052 25,457 3,595 2,913 682 2,055

Table A-22. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1997

Calender Year Total1 Federal Payments State Supplementation
1997 Dollars Current Dollars Total Federally Administered State Administered
1974 $440 $135 $108 $64 $71 $35
1975 313 112 92 66 69 45
1980 297 158 133 89 91 76
1984 323 211 187 93 93 93
1985 324 219 193 99 99 102
1986 338 232 202 107 108 101
1987 338 242 208 117 118 110
1988 339 253 219 118 118 118
1989 342 267 230 126 126 127
1990 341 283 244 132 131 136
1991 347 297 260 125 122 143
1992 373 328 292 124 121 147
1993 373 337 306 112 107 150
1994 364 338 310 105 99 152
1995 368 350 322 110 103 164
1996 366 359 332 108 103 145
1997 369 369 342 99 102 86
Calender Year Number of PersonsReceiving Payments (in thousands)
Total Federal State Supplementation
Total Federally Administered State Administered

1 Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and Stateonly
average benefit.

Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table A-21. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using the monthly values of the CPI-U-X1 index.

Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of SSI, and Office of Budget.

Jan1974 3,249 2,956 1,839 1,480 358
Dec1975 4,360 3,893 1,987 1,684 303
Dec1980 4,194 3,682 1,934 1,685 249
Dec1984 4,094 3,699 1,875 1,607 268
Dec1985 4,200 3,799 1,916 1,661 255
Dec1986 4,347 3,922 2,003 1,723 279
Dec1987 4,458 4,019 2,079 1,807 272
Dec1988 4,541 4,089 2,155 1,885 270
Dec1989 4,673 4,206 2,224 1,950 275
Dec1990 4,888 4,412 2,344 2,058 286
Dec1991 5,200 4,730 2,512 2,204 308
Dec1992 5,647 5,202 2,684 2,372 313
Dec1993 6,065 5,636 2,850 2,536 314
Dec1994 6,377 5,965 2,950 2,628 322
Dec1995 6,576 6,194 2,817 2,518 300
Dec1996 6,677 6,326 2,732 2,421 310
Dec1997 6,565 6,212 3,029 2,372 657

Table A-23. SSI Participation Rates, 1974 - 1997

[In percent]

  All Recipients as a Percent Of Total Population1 Child Recipients
as a Percent of All Children1
Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
All Persons 65 & Older1 All Elderly Poor2 Pretransfer Elderly Poor3

1 Population numbers used for the denominators are Census resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year; see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106.

2 For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-198.

3 The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.

Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table A-20. Rates computed by DHHS.

Source: 1994 Green Book and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1996," Current Population Reports, Series P60-198, and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Dec 1974 1.9 0.1 10.8 78.5 NA
Dec 1975 2.0 0.2 10.9 75.6 NA
Dec 1976 1.9 0.2 10.2 72.4 NA
Dec 1977 1.9 0.3 9.7 74.1 NA
Dec 1978 1.9 0.3 9.3 71.5 NA
Dec 1979 1.8 0.3 8.8 61.3 66.8
Dec 1980 1.8 0.4 8.6 57.5 64.7
Dec 1981 1.7 0.4 8.0 55.0 63.3
Dec 1982 1.7 0.4 7.4 53.6 62.3
Dec 1983 1.7 0.4 7.3 55.2 61.9
Dec 1984 1.7 0.4 7.2 61.2 66.3
Dec 1985 1.7 0.4 7.1 58.7 64.5
Dec 1986 1.8 0.4 6.9 57.9 63.4
Dec 1987 1.8 0.5 6.7 56.5 64.7
Dec 1988 1.8 0.5 6.6 57.6 64.3
Dec 1989 1.9 0.5 6.5 60.3 64.6
Dec 1990 1.9 0.5 6.5 56.3 63.3
Dec 1991 2.0 0.7 6.5 55.0 61.1
Dec 1992 2.2 0.9 6.5 53.5 59.8
Dec 1993 2.3 1.1 6.4 56.3 63.3
Dec 1994 2.4 1.3 6.4 57.9 65.6
Dec 1995 2.5 1.4 6.4 63.7 71.4
Dec 1996 2.5 1.5 6.2 61.0 69.3
Dec 1997 2.4 1.3 6.0 60.8 NA

Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1997

Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1997

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).


  • The proportion of persons receiving SSI who are 65 years of age or older (as a percent of all SSI recipients) has decreased steadily from a high of 61 percent in 1974 to a low of 32 percent in 1997 essentially cutting the proportion of elderly recipients in half. The actual number who are 65 or older has declined from 2.5 million in 1975 to a little less than 2.1 million today.
  • The percentage of child recipients increased two and one half times during the 1970s, going from 2 percent in 1974 to 5 percent by the end of the decade. During the 1980s, it remained fairly constant at about 6 percent. In the 1990s, the share of child recipients increased rapidly, more than doubling to 15 percent.
  • The percentage of persons receiving SSI between the ages of 18 and 64 has increased steadily over time, rising from 38 percent in 1974 to 54 percent in 1997.

Figure A-7. Number and Percentage Distribution of Persons Age 15 or Older with Supplemental Security Income, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1985 & 1995

(In thousands)

Figure A-7. Number and Percentage Distribution of Persons Age 15 or Older with Supplemental Security Income, by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1985 & 1995

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Money Income in the United States: 1995," Current Population Reports, Series P60-193 and earlier years.


Table A-24. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments, Fiscal 1997

(In Thousands)

State Total1 Total Federal2 Federal SSI2 State Supplementation
Federally Administered2 State Administrated
    Other: N. Mariana Islands 2,518 2,518 2,518
Total $29,052,091 $28,370,538 $25,457,355 $2,913,281 $681,521

1 Includes $463,000 for unknown States. Federal SSI includes $643,000 for unknown States.

2 The sum of federally administered State supplementation payments exceeds the total by $214,000. This represents refunds of State payments that had not yet been credited to States.

3 Data estimated.

4 Represents recovered State payments. Administration changed from Federal to State: Maine in April 1996, Wisconsin in January 1996.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1998.

Alabama 634,096 633,109 633,109 987
Alaska 43,052 30,080 30,080 12,972 3
Arizona 316,054 315,742 315,742 312
Arkansas 335,331 335,331 335,331
California 5,512,788 5,512,788 3,593,495 1,919,293
Colorado 296,154 229,554 229,554 66,600
Connecticut 288,158 195,349 195,349 92,809
Delaware 45,500 45,500 44,626 874
District of Columbia 84,906 84,906 82,163 2,743
Florida 1,467,042 1,448,658 1,448,650 8 18,384
Georgia 744,478 744,475 744,478
Hawaii 88,669 88,669 77,363 11,306
Idaho 78,965 68,549 68,549 10,416
Illinois 1,174,134 1,144,974 1,144,974 29,160
Indiana 373,244 369,668 369,668 3,576
Iowa 164,641 153,316 150,311 3,005 11,325
Kansas 146,264 146,264 146,264
Kentucky 692,039 676,463 676,463 15,576
Louisiana 728,659 728,116 728,116 543
Maine 100,768 100,064 100,122 -58 4 704
Maryland 370,584 363,907 363,896 11 6,677
Massachusetts 740,252 740,252 579,728 160,524
Michigan 949,061 945,255 917,569 27,686 3,806
Minnesota 306,218 252,921 252,921 53,297 3
Mississippi 517,694 517,694 517,694
Missouri 477,882 452,689 452,689 25,193
Montana 54,344 54,344 53,512 832
Nebraska 87,418 81,219 81,219 6,199
Nevada 88,176 88,176 83,915 4,261
New Hampshire 54,651 43,563 43,563 11,088
New Jersey 627,617 627,617 550,794 76,823
New Mexico 177,662 177,394 177,394 268
New York 2,931,527 2,931,527 2,408,404 523,123
North Carolina 791,473 698,905 698,905 92,568
North Dakota 31,722 29,806 29,806 1,916 3
Ohio 1,111,237 1,111,237 1,111,235 2
Oklahoma 320,881 283,469 283,469 37,412
Oregon 218,164 197,990 197,990 20,174 3
Pennsylvania 1,235,472 1,235,472 1,109,806 125,666
Rhode Island 109,271 109,271 89,628 19,643
South Carolina 423,542 410,499 410,499 13,043
South Dakota 50,840 48,936 48,929 7 1,904
Tennessee 657,844 657,844 657,844
Texas 1,491,309 1,491,309 1,491,309
Utah 85,860 85,860 85,801 59
Vermont 50,122 50,122 40,553 9,569
Virginia 526,385 507,128 507,128 19,257
Washington 432,129 431,886 403,459 28,427 243
West Virginia 296,853 296,853 296,853
Wisconsin 494,557 370,147 370,555 -408 4 124,410
Wyoming 23,421 22,724 22,724 697

Table A-25. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 1997

[In percent]

  Total Recipiency Rate Rate for Adults 18-84 Rate for Adults 65 & Over
1979 1997 Percent Change 1979-97 1979 1997 Percent Change 1979-97 1979 1997 Percent Change 1979-97
Total 1.85 2.43 31.2 1.26 2.17 72.3 8.98 6.03 -32.9

Note: Recipiency rates are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the population in the respective age group as of the the month of July; calculations by DHHS.

Source: Social Security Administration and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Alabama 3.55 3.78 6.5 1.83 3.20 74.9 21.01 9.28 -55.8
Alaska 0.77 1.22 58.7 0.54 1.22 126.4 14.04 5.45 -61.2
Arizona 1.11 1.68 51.0 0.89 1.62 82.4 4.98 3.47 -30.3
Arkansas 3.50 3.59 2.5 1.87 3.07 64.4 17.05 8.12 -52.4
California 3.02 3.17 5.0 2.05 2.49 21.7 16.43 12.67 -22.9
Colorado 1.10 1.45 31.9 0.77 1.37 77.5 6.68 3.55 -46.9
Connecticut 0.75 1.41 88.3 0.63 1.45 130.5 2.70 2.53 -6.4
Delaware 1.19 1.56 31.3 0.94 1.41 50.5 5.43 2.69 -50.5
District of Columbia 2.28 3.75 64.5 1.92 3.32 72.9 8.56 7.48 -12.6
Florida 1.78 2.41 35.4 1.14 1.91 67.9 6.21 4.92 -20.8
Georgia 2.87 2.66 -7.2 1.89 2.24 18.7 17.73 8.84 -50.2
Hawaii 1.05 1.64 56.0 0.69 1.27 84.7 7.57 5.84 -22.9
Idaho 0.79 1.41 78.0 0.64 1.50 134.8 3.78 2.21 -41.5
Illinois 1.08 2.12 96.7 0.95 2.13 124.1 4.25 3.89 -8.5
Indiana 0.75 1.51 101.3 0.61 1.56 155.6 3.32 1.99 -40.2
Iowa 0.89 1.43 60.5 0.62 1.55 150.0 3.50 2.00 -42.9
Kansas 0.89 1.40 57.2 0.63 1.45 129.7 3.47 2.04 -41.2
Kentucky 2.54 4.29 69.0 1.79 4.33 141.7 12.54 8.16 -34.9
Louisiana 3.35 4.03 20.3 2.03 3.56 75.3 20.14 9.87 -51.0
Maine 1.95 2.27 16.4 1.39 2.44 75.4 8.58 3.91 -54.4
Maryland 1.15 1.67 45.3 0.94 1.46 55.1 5.40 4.29 -20.5
Massachusetts 2.24 2.75 22.9 1.28 2.68 109.1 10.80 5.88 -45.5
Michigan 1.26 2.14 69.8 1.07 2.20 106.0 5.85 3.18 -45.6
Minnesota 0.81 1.34 65.0 0.55 1.33 141.1 3.71 2.59 -30.1
Mississippi 4.49 4.98 10.9 2.42 4.24 75.4 26.01 13.65 -47.5
Missouri 1.76 2.08 18.3 1.10 2.11 91.7 7.89 3.55 -55.0
Montana 0.89 1.56 75.8 0.72 1.69 135.3 3.79 2.32 -38.9
Nebraska 0.88 1.27 44.5 0.64 1.31 104.3 3.38 1.97 -41.7
Nevada 0.84 1.33 58.0 0.53 1.16 118.9 5.87 3.48 -40.8
New Hampshire 0.58 0.95 63.2 0.44 1.00 127.5 2.53 1.44 -42.9
New Jersey 1.14 1.79 57.0 0.86 1.50 74.1 4.69 4.48 -4.4
New Mexico 1.97 2.62 33.1 1.37 2.35 71.2 12.36 7.88 -36.2
New York 2.12 3.30 55.5 1.59 2.78 75.1 8.26 8.88 7.4
North Carolina 2.40 2.60 8.4 1.58 2.14 35.4 13.60 7.04 -48.3
North Dakota 0.99 1.34 35.8 0.57 1.30 128.8 5.05 2.74 -45.7
Ohio 1.11 2.21 98.9 0.99 2.35 137.6 4.17 2.60 -37.6
Oklahoma 2.32 2.22 -4.1 1.33 2.05 54.4 11.62 4.93 -57.6
Oregon 0.86 1.48 71.9 0.70 1.52 117.8 3.28 2.57 -21.6
Pennsylvania 1.40 2.24 60.1 1.12 2.24 100.2 4.96 3.52 -29.1
Rhode Island 1.59 2.56 61.2 1.08 2.53 133.8 6.43 4.79 -25.5
South Carolina 2.69 2.92 8.5 1.78 2.47 38.9 16.96 7.75 -54.3
South Dakota 1.14 1.79 56.6 0.72 1.69 135.0 4.99 3.35 -32.8
Tennessee 2.86 3.20 11.9 1.87 2.98 59.4 14.77 7.45 -49.6
Texas 1.89 2.09 10.8 0.95 1.61 69.1 12.69 8.46 -33.4
Utah 0.55 0.99 79.3 0.51 1.08 111.5 3.03 1.98 -34.7
Vermont 1.77 2.16 22.0 1.31 2.19 67.0 8.08 4.64 -42.6
Virginia 1.50 1.94 29.6 1.02 1.61 57.7 8.52 5.37 -37.0
Washington 1.16 1.68 45.2 0.98 1.74 77.9 4.83 3.38 -30.1
West Virginia 2.13 3.82 79.3 1.86 4.19 125.1 7.95 5.21 -34.5
Wisconsin 1.44 1.75 21.7 0.96 1.73 80.6 6.54 2.65 -59.4
Wyoming 0.42 1.20 185.9 0.29 1.29 346.1 2.74 1.79 -34.5

Table A-26. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1997

[In percent]

  1975 1985 1990 1992 19942 19962 19972
Total1 2.00 1.74 1.94 2.11 2.42 2.49 2.43

1 The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, 1990, and 1992,, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, 0, and 71 respectively.

2 For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year. For 1994-1997 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.

Source: Social Security Administration and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Alabama 3.98 3.29 3.29 3.43 3.83 3.91 3.78
Alaska 0.81 0.65 0.84 0.90 1.05 1.21 1.22
Arizona 1.24 1.04 1.22 1.42 1.68 1.71 1.68
Arkansas 4.09 3.14 3.23 3.47 3.83 3.76 3.59
California 3.09 2.59 2.93 3.10 3.23 3.28 3.17
Colorado 1.37 0.93 1.14 1.29 1.49 1.50 1.45
Connecticut 0.76 0.83 0.98 1.10 1.30 1.41 1.41
Delaware 1.19 1.21 1.21 1.27 1.45 1.58 1.56
District of Columbia 2.23 2.51 2.67 3.00 3.48 3.73 3.75
Florida 1.86 1.62 1.71 1.90 2.27 2.45 2.41
Georgia 3.27 2.56 2.46 2.55 2.75 2.73 2.66
Hawaii 1.08 1.08 1.25 1.30 1.53 1.65 1.64
Idaho 1.06 0.84 1.03 1.21 1.39 1.46 1.41
Illinois 1.22 1.18 1.55 1.78 2.21 2.27 2.12
Indiana 0.83 0.87 1.09 1.26 1.49 1.55 1.51
Iowa 1.00 0.96 1.18 1.29 1.44 1.47 1.43
Kansas 1.05 0.87 0.99 1.14 1.39 1.49 1.40
Kentucky 2.83 2.65 3.11 3.42 4.07 4.38 4.29
Louisiana 3.90 2.87 3.15 3.49 4.14 4.19 4.03
Maine 2.31 1.89 1.93 2.03 2.38 2.24 2.27
Maryland 1.17 1.16 1.25 1.35 1.57 1.67 1.67
Massachusetts 2.30 1.91 1.98 2.23 2.60 2.72 2.75
Michigan 1.31 1.35 1.54 1.71 2.18 2.23 2.14
Minnesota 1.00 0.78 0.92 1.05 1.30 1.37 1.34
Mississippi 5.21 4.28 4.42 4.68 5.23 5.20 4.98
Missouri 2.10 1.58 1.66 1.83 2.08 2.17 2.08
Montana 1.12 0.92 1.25 1.38 1.55 1.62 1.56
Nebraska 1.06 0.88 0.99 1.09 1.26 1.32 1.27
Nevada 1.00 0.85 0.95 1.04 1.30 1.37 1.33
New Hampshire 0.67 0.62 0.62 0.71 0.85 0.95 0.95
New Jersey 1.11 1.23 1.36 1.52 1.78 1.82 1.79
New Mexico 2.29 1.83 2.08 2.25 2.58 2.67 2.62
New York 2.24 2.00 2.31 2.60 3.10 3.33 3.30
North Carolina 2.71 2.21 2.24 2.36 2.58 2.66 2.60
North Dakota 1.25 0.96 1.17 1.30 1.39 1.38 1.34
Ohio 1.22 1.19 1.44 1.63 2.12 2.27 2.21
Oklahoma 3.03 1.81 1.92 2.02 2.22 2.28 2.22
Oregon 1.12 0.95 1.11 1.24 1.47 1.51 1.48
Pennsylvania 1.24 1.39 1.60 1.77 2.09 2.24 2.24
Rhode Island 1.72 1.62 1.74 1.91 2.29 2.55 2.56
South Carolina 2.84 2.60 2.59 2.67 2.96 3.03 2.92
South Dakota 1.32 1.19 1.45 1.62 1.83 1.88 1.79
Tennessee 3.24 2.71 2.87 3.06 3.37 3.36 3.20
Texas 2.23 1.57 1.73 1.87 2.12 2.15 2.09
Utah 0.76 0.53 0.73 0.84 1.04 1.05 0.99
Vermont 1.93 1.76 1.79 1.99 2.19 2.19 2.16
Virginia 1.53 1.49 1.54 1.67 1.91 2.00 1.94
Washington 1.46 1.09 1.27 1.39 1.64 1.71 1.68
West Virginia 2.37 2.24 2.63 2.91 3.53 3.82 3.82
Wisconsin 1.44 1.50 1.75 1.88 2.16 1.84 1.75
Wyoming 0.67 0.45 0.76 0.92 1.16 1.22 1.20

1 States also have the option of continuing TANF benefits for immigrants who arrived before the bill’s enactment. Only Alabama, Mississippi and South Carolina have indicated that they will not be continuing benefits for these aliens.

2 Alternative programs are offered in Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.

3 Some of the decline in food stamp participation can be attributed to eligibility changes made in the 1996 welfare law, most notably the elimination of eligibility for most legal immigrants and for many childless adults aged 18-50. By April 1, 1997, many states began removing legal immigrants who were receiving food stamps on August 22, 1996. Most states removed at least a portion of the childless 18-50 year olds on or around March 1, 1997.

4 On February 20, 1990, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual functional assessment (or a residual functional capacity assessment) applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments. A GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the individual functional assessments for children were initiated.

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