Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1998. Appendix B. Poverty Data

10/01/1998

Figure B-1. The Poverty Gap 1 and Reductions in the Gap from Cash and Non-Cash Transfers for All Persons, 1979 - 1996

Figure B-1. The Poverty Gap and Reductions in the Gap from Cash and Non-Cash Transfers for All Persons, 1979 - 1996

1 The poverty gap denotes the amount of funds needed to bring all those below poverty up to the poverty threshold; as measured here the gap is the difference between the poverty threshold and cash income plus all social insurance (including social security benefits). Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is imputed. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit which is always positive whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by DHHS.


Table B-1. The Poverty Gap 1 and Reductions in the Gap from Cash and Non-Cash Transfers for All Persons, 1979 - 1996

(In billions of constant 1996 dollars)

  1979 1982 1985 1988 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

1 The poverty gap denotes the amount of funds needed to bring all those below poverty up to the poverty threshold; as measured here the gap is the difference between the poverty threshold and cash income plus all social insurance (including social security benefits). Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is imputed. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit which is always positive whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by DHHS.

Poverty Gap After:
Cash Income plus All Social Insurance 73.3 94.6 94.3 92.5 108.6 118.1 113.6 106.0 106.6
    Plus Means-Tested Cash Assistance 51.0 70.8 69.7 69.3 82.6 89.1 85.4 80.5 81.5
    Plus Food and Housing Benefits 39.9 56.2 55.1 53.8 63.1 68.1 65.4 62.4 63.3
    Plus EITC and Federal Taxes 40.5 58.2 57.5 54.9 63.6 67.5 63.7 60.1 60.4
Reduction in Poverty Gap Due To:
    Means-Tested Cash 22.3 23.7 24.6 23.2 26.1 29.0 28.1 25.5 25.0
    Food and Housing Benefits 11.1 14.6 14.6 15.5 19.4 21.0 20.0 18.2 18.3
    EITC and Federal Taxes -0.6 -2.0 -2.3 -1.1 -0.5 0.6 1.7 2.3 2.9
        Total Reductions 32.8 36.4 36.8 37.6 45.0 50.6 49.9 45.9 46.2
Percent Reduction in Gap Due To:
    Means-Tested Cash 30.5 25.1 26.1 25.1 24.0 24.6 24.8 24.0 23.5
    Food and Housing Benefits 15.1 15.5 15.5 16.7 17.9 17.8 17.6 17.1 17.1
    EITC and Federal Taxes -0.9 -2.1 -2.4 -1.2 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.2 2.7
        Total Reductions 44.7 38.5 39.1 40.6 41.4 42.9 44.0 43.3 43.3

Figure B-2. The Poverty Gap 1 and Reductions in the Gap from Cash & Non-Cash Transfers for Persons in Families with Children Under 18 Years, 1979 - 1996

(In billions of constant 1996 dollars)

Figure B-2. The Poverty Gap and Reductions in the Gap from Cash & Non-Cash Transfers for Persons in Families with Children Under 18 Years, 1979 - 1996

1 The poverty gap denotes the amount of funds needed to bring all those below poverty up to the poverty threshold; as measured here it is the difference between the poverty threshold and cash income plus all social insurance (including social security benefits). Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is imputed. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit which is always positive whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by DHHS.


Table B-2. The Poverty Gap 1 and Reductions in the Gap from Cash & Non-Cash Transfers for Persons in Families with Children Under 18 Years, 1979 - 1996

(In billions of constant 1996 dollars)

  1979 1982 1985 1988 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

1 The poverty gap denotes the amount of funds needed to bring all those below poverty up to the poverty threshold; as measured here it is the difference between the poverty threshold and cash income plus all social insurance (including social security benefits). Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is imputed. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit which is always positive whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by DHHS.

Poverty Gap After:
Cash Income plus All Social Insurance 43.0 58.3 56.4 54.8 64.1 70.0 65.8 58.5 58.4
    Plus Means-Tested Cash Assistance 27.7 41.6 39.5 39.1 46.7 50.0 46.7 41.7 42.9
    Plus Food and Housing Benefits 18.7 29.4 27.4 26.5 31.0 33.0 30.7 27.3 28.5
    Plus EITC and Federal Taxes 18.7 30.3 28.5 26.4 30.1 32.1 28.0 24.1 24.6
Reduction in Poverty Gap Due To:
    Means-Tested Cash 15.3 16.7 16.9 15.6 17.4 20.1 19.1 16.8 15.5
    Food and Housing Benefits 9.1 12.2 12.1 12.7 15.7 16.9 16.1 14.3 14.5
    EITC and Federal Taxes 0.0 -0.9 -1.0 0.1 0.9 0.9 2.7 3.2 3.9
        Total Reductions 24.4 28.0 28.0 28.4 33.9 38.0 37.9 34.4 33.9
Percent Reduction in Gap Due To:
    Means-Tested Cash 35.5 28.6 29.9 28.6 27.1 28.7 29.0 28.8 26.5
    Food and Housing Benefits 21.1 20.9 21.4 23.1 24.5 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7
    EITC and Federal Taxes 0.0 -1.6 -1.8 0.2 1.3 1.4 4.1 5.5 6.7
        Total Reductions 56.6 48.0 49.6 51.8 52.9 54.2 57.5 58.8 58.0

Table B-3. Poverty Rate of Related Children Under 18 1 by State, Selected Years 1969 – 1997

[In percent]

  1969 1979 1983 1986 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997

1 Related children under 18 include own children, including stepchildren and adopted children, plus all other children in the household who are related to the householder by blood, marriage, or adoption.

Note: Due to limited sample size, rates for small states exhibit large sampling errors.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, for 1969 data see 1970 Census of Population, PC(S1)-105 "Supplementary Report", table 3; for 1979 data, see 1980 Census of Population, PC80-1-C1 "General Social and Economic Characteristics", table 245; subsequent years are unpublished March Current Population Survey data.

Alabama 29.3 23.6 31.0 38.0 23.5 23.9 21.9 21.2 25.3
Alaska 14.7 12.1 14.4 13.6 13.7 11.9 12.3 9.9 10.4
Arizona 17.9 16.5 27.7 20.1 23.9 23.9 24.6 30.5 25.1
Arkansas 31.3 23.4 23.9 27.6 24.6 23.9 19.3 22.0 26.7
California 12.7 15.2 23.0 19.5 20.1 24.6 27.0 25.0 25.0
Colorado 12.7 11.5 17.5 19.2 16.7 15.1 11.7 11.7 9.5
Connecticut 7.8 11.4 13.8 10.6 1.8 20.1 20.6 21.9 9.9
Delaware 12.3 15.6 12.0 21.2 14.2 12.2 11.3 14.0 16.2
Dist of Columbia 23.1 27.0 32.2 23.0 26.2 35.8 37.3 38.0 38.6
Florida 19.2 18.5 22.5 16.4 19.3 24.4 23.1 21.7 20.4
Georgia 24.1 21.1 23.8 23.8 24.2 27.4 19.4 19.9 24.8
Hawaii 10.3 13.0 20.7 14.7 17.7 19.0 11.9 15.9 20.7
Idaho 12.7 14.3 24.0 23.0 15.3 20.6 16.3 16.6 20.2
Illinois 11.0 14.9 21.4 20.7 20.5 23.6 18.9 17.8 15.8
Indiana 9.3 11.9 24.5 16.4 22.8 16.6 16.9 7.8 10.9
Iowa 10.1 11.5 22.8 16.6 13.7 16.5 14.1 11.0 11.3
Kansas 12.0 11.4 19.5 13.7 16.2 15.0 19.4 13.5 10.9
Kentucky 24.9 21.6 24.7 23.2 19.3 28.0 28.5 24.5 23.1
Louisiana 30.0 23.5 27.5 31.3 33.8 35.3 37.5 31.5 23.1
Maine 14.5 15.8 16.2 11.0 14.4 20.3 11.6 14.3 13.2
Maryland 11.5 12.5 13.3 11.8 13.1 18.7 16.8 16.3 13.4
Massachusetts 8.8 13.1 12.6 14.4 14.3 18.1 13.4 14.2 19.7
Michigan 9.4 13.3 25.3 21.5 19.9 20.7 21.2 16.7 14.2
Minnesota 9.5 10.2 14.8 19.0 17.0 18.6 13.8 11.6 15.9
Mississippi 41.3 30.4 37.8 33.5 31.1 32.9 29.5 29.5 21.5
Missouri 14.9 14.6 22.4 20.2 17.5 22.9 22.7 11.6 18.2
Montana 13.3 13.8 17.7 24.2 22.5 19.5 13.6 25.6 18.7
Nebraska 12.2 12.1 17.3 19.1 18.8 16.0 11.2 12.7 12.1
Nevada 9.1 10.0 10.3 14.4 14.6 19.2 16.5 9.4 16.8
New Hampshire 7.9 9.4 10.2 1.7 9.5 10.1 11.5 9.0 12.3
New Jersey 9.2 14.1 17.9 13.9 12.7 15.5 13.9 13.5 13.9
New Mexico 26.7 22.1 29.5 27.8 27.0 29.8 29.1 34.2 29.9
New York 12.7 19.0 23.3 20.6 19.4 25.8 25.8 25.0 25.2
North Carolina 23.6 18.3 19.8 19.1 15.6 24.3 20.4 17.9 16.3
North Dakota 15.9 14.3 16.9 14.1 15.0 14.3 12.0 11.0 18.5
Ohio 10.0 13.2 19.2 18.7 15.1 19.4 21.0 18.5 15.3
Oklahoma 19.7 15.7 22.6 17.7 18.7 24.2 22.9 25.4 17.7
Oregon 10.8 12.0 23.3 15.5 16.0 15.2 14.7 19.8 15.8
Pennsylvania 10.9 13.9 22.3 14.2 16.6 16.2 18.9 15.3 16.6
Rhode Island 11.7 13.8 23.1 13.9 8.4 21.7 14.1 14.3 21.0
South Carolina 28.7 21.0 29.3 23.2 24.7 29.0 20.6 19.1 19.5
South Dakota 18.9 20.0 23.2 21.8 13.9 19.0 19.2 13.4 16.8
Tennessee 24.6 20.6 28.4 23.5 26.5 21.3 19.0 22.8 19.1
Texas 21.7 18.7 22.7 24.7 24.0 26.6 27.7 24.1 23.0
Utah 10.6 10.7 16.2 14.2 10.0 11.8 9.0 8.8 11.5
Vermont 11.5 13.9 21.2 15.8 9.1 11.8 7.9 16.7 12.1
Virginia 18.0 14.9 16.1 14.6 14.8 14.6 12.0 17.2 17.6
Washington 9.8 11.5 13.6 18.5 11.2 15.3 15.7 16.0 14.0
West Virginia 24.3 18.5 30.9 30.8 21.5 35.1 26.3 24.0 20.6
Wisconsin 8.9 10.4 14.6 14.3 11.7 15.0 13.1 11.5 10.7
Wyoming 11.6 7.7 14.5 19.7 14.7 13.5 11.1 13.3 15.3
United States 13.8 16.0 21.8 19.8 19.0 21.6 21.2 19.8 19.2

Table B-4. Poverty Rate of All Persons By State, Selected Years 1969 – 1997

[In percent]

  1969 1979 1983 1986 1989 1992 1994 1996 1997
Alabama 25.4 18.9 22.9 23.8 18.9 17.3 16.4 14.0 15.7
Alaska 12.6 10.7 12.4 11.4 10.5 10.2 10.2 8.2 8.8
Arizona 15.3 13.2 16.5 14.3 14.1 15.8 15.9 20.5 17.2
Arkansas 27.8 19.0 21.6 21.3 18.3 17.5 15.3 17.2 19.7
California 11.1 11.4 14.9 12.7 12.9 16.4 17.9 16.9 16.6
Colorado 12.3 10.1 12.5 13.5 12.1 10.8 9.0 10.6 8.2
Connecticut 7.2 8.0 8.7 6.0 2.9 9.8 10.8 11.7 8.6
Delaware 10.9 11.9 8.5 12.4 10.0 7.8 8.3 8.6 9.6
Dist of Columbia 17.0 18.6 21.3 12.8 18.0 20.3 21.2 24.1 21.8
Florida 16.4 13.5 14.8 11.4 12.5 15.6 14.9 14.2 14.3
Georgia 20.7 16.6 18.8 14.6 15.0 17.7 14.0 14.8 14.5
Hawaii 9.3 9.9 13.4 10.7 11.3 11.2 8.7 12.1 13.9
Idaho 13.2 12.6 17.3 18.5 12.4 15.2 12.0 11.9 14.7
Illinois 10.2 11.0 14.4 13.3 12.7 15.6 12.4 12.1 11.2
Indiana 9.7 9.7 16.1 12.7 13.7 11.8 13.7 7.5 8.8
Iowa 11.6 10.1 16.7 12.9 10.3 11.5 10.7 9.6 9.6
Kansas 12.7 10.1 13.5 11.1 10.8 11.1 14.9 11.2 9.7
Kentucky 22.9 17.6 18.0 17.7 16.1 19.7 18.5 17.0 15.9
Louisiana 26.3 18.6 21.6 22.0 23.3 24.5 25.7 20.5 16.3
Maine 13.6 13.0 12.4 10.2 10.4 13.5 9.4 11.2 10.1
Maryland 10.1 9.8 8.6 9.2 9.0 11.8 10.7 10.3 8.4
Massachusetts 8.6 9.6 7.7 9.2 8.8 10.3 9.7 10.1 12.2
Michigan 9.4 10.4 16.8 13.9 13.2 13.6 14.1 11.2 10.3
Minnesota 10.7 9.5 12.3 12.5 11.2 13.0 11.7 9.8 9.6
Mississippi 35.4 23.9 26.9 26.6 22.0 24.6 19.9 20.6 16.7
Missouri 14.7 12.2 16.7 14.4 12.6 15.7 15.6 9.5 11.8
Montana 13.6 12.3 15.1 16.5 15.6 13.8 11.5 17.0 15.6
Nebraska 13.1 10.7 15.3 13.6 12.8 10.6 8.8 10.2 9.8
Nevada 9.1 8.7 9.8 8.1 10.8 14.7 11.1 8.1 11
New Hampshire 9.1 8.5 8.1 3.7 7.7 8.7 7.7 6.4 9.1
New Jersey 8.1 9.5 10.9 8.9 8.2 10.3 9.2 9.2 9.3
New Mexico 22.8 17.6 24.2 21.3 19.5 21.6 21.1 25.5 21.2
New York 11.1 13.4 15.8 13.2 12.6 15.7 17.0 16.7 16.5
North Carolina 20.3 14.8 15.9 14.3 12.2 15.8 14.2 12.2 11.4
North Dakota 15.7 12.6 15.1 13.5 12.2 12.1 10.4 11.0 13.6
Ohio 10.0 10.3 13.6 12.8 10.6 12.5 14.1 12.7 11
Oklahoma 18.8 13.4 16.9 14.7 14.7 18.6 16.7 16.6 13.7
Oregon 11.5 10.7 16.4 12.3 11.2 11.4 11.8 11.8 11.6
Pennsylvania 10.6 10.5 15.5 10.1 10.4 11.9 12.5 11.6 11.2
Rhode Island 11.0 10.3 14.8 9.1 6.7 12.4 10.3 11.0 12.7
South Carolina 23.9 16.6 20.9 17.3 17.0 19.0 13.8 13.0 13.1
South Dakota 18.7 16.9 18.1 17.0 13.2 15.1 14.5 11.8 16.5
Tennessee 21.8 16.5 20.1 18.3 18.4 17.0 14.6 15.9 14.3
Texas 18.8 14.7 15.7 17.3 17.1 18.3 19.1 16.6 16.7
Utah 11.4 10.3 13.9 12.6 8.2 9.4 8.0 7.7 8.9
Vermont 12.1 12.1 15.6 11.0 8.0 10.5 7.6 12.6 9.3
Virginia 15.5 11.8 11.4 9.7 10.9 9.5 10.7 12.3 12.7
Washington 10.2 9.8 10.8 12.9 9.6 11.2 11.7 11.9 9.2
West Virginia 22.2 15.0 22.3 22.4 15.7 22.3 18.6 18.5 16.4
Wisconsin 9.8 8.7 10.6 10.7 8.4 10.9 9.0 8.8 8.2
Wyoming 11.7 7.9 12.7 14.6 10.9 10.3 9.3 11.9 13.5
United States 13.7 12.4 15.2 13.6 12.8 14.8 14.5 13.7 13.3

Note: Due to limited sample size, rates for small states exhibit large sampling errors.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, for 1969 data, see 1970 Census of Population, PC(1)-C1 "General Social and Economic Characteristics", table 182; for 1979 data, see 1980 Census of Population, PC80-1-C1 "General Social and Economic Characteristics", table 245; 1983 and later years, “Poverty in the United States: 1997," Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Table B-5. Number and Percent of Persons in Poverty by Family Relationship for All Races, 1959 - 1997

All Races Persons in Families Related Children1 Under 18 in Families Related Children under 18 In Married-couple Families Related Children under 18 in Families with Female Householder
no husband present
Thousands Percent Thousands Percent Thousands Percent Thousands Percent

1 Related children under 18 include own children, including stepchildren and adopted children, plus all other children in the household who are related to the householder by blood, marriage, or adoption.

2 Estimated by subtracting an estimate of the number of children living in families headed by male householders with no wife present from the total number of children living in all male-headed households.

3 Prior to 1979 unrelated subfamiles were included in all families. Beginning in 1979 unrelated subfamilies are excluded from
all families.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1997," Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

1959 34,562 20.8 17,208 26.9 12,8522 22.32 4,145 72.2
1960 34,925 20.7 17,288 26.5 13,0042 22.12 4,095 68.4
1961 34,509 20.3 16,577 25.2 12,2902 20.92 4,044 65.1
1962 33,623 19.4 16,630 24.7 11,8492 19.72 4,506 70.2
1963 31,498 17.9 15,691 22.8 10,9302 17.72 4,554 66.6
1964 30,912 17.4 15,736 22.7 11,1272 18.02 4,422 62.3
1965 28,358 15.8 14,388 20.7 9,6442 15.62 4,562 64.2
1966 23,809 13.1 12,146 17.4 7,7172 12.42 4,262 58.2
1967 22,771 12.5 11,427 16.3 7,0502 11.32 4,246 54.3
1968 20,695 11.3 10,739 15.3 6,2102 10.02 4,409 55.2
1969 19,175 10.4 9,501 13.8 5,1462 8.52 4,247 54.4
1970 20,330 10.9 10,235 14.9 5,4072 9.02 4,689 53.0
1971 20,405 10.8 10,344 15.1 5,3532 9.12 4,850 53.1
1972 19,577 10.3 10,082 14.9 4,8692 8.52 5,094 53.1
1973 18,299 9.7 9,453 14.2 4,1722 7.42 5,171 52.1
1974 18,817 9.9 9,967 15.1 4,4182 8.12 5,361 51.5
1975 20,789 10.9 10,882 16.8 5,141 9.7 5,597 52.7
1976 19,632 10.3 10,081 15.8 4,333 8.3 5,583 52.0
1977 19,505 10.2 10,028 16.0 4,173 8.3 5,658 50.3
1978 19,062 10.0 9,722 15.7 3,865 7.8 5,687 50.6
19793 19,964 10.2 9,993 16.0 4,176 8.3 5,635 48.6
1980 22,601 11.5 11,114 17.9 4,982 10.1 5,866 50.8
1981 24,850 12.5 12,068 19.5 5,522 11.4 6,305 52.3
1982 27,349 13.6 13,139 21.3 6,139 12.6 6,696 56.1
1983 27,933 13.9 13,427 21.8 6,345 13.2 6,747 55.4
1984 26,458 13.1 12,929 21.0 5,757 12.2 6,772 54.0
1985 .......... 25,729 12.6 12,483 20.1 5,393 11.3 6,716 53.6
1986 24,754 12.0 12,257 19.8 4,942 10.4 6,943 54.4
1987 24,725 12.0 12,275 19.7 4,835 10.2 7,019 53.7
1988 24,048 11.6 11,935 19.0 4,552 9.5 6,955 52.9
1989 24,066 11.5 12,001 19.0 4,738 9.9 6,808 51.1
1990 25,232 12.0 12,715 19.9 4,907 10.2 7,363 53.4
1991 27,143 12.8 13,658 21.1 5,066 10.6 8,065 55.4
1992 28,961 13.3 14,521 21.6 5,547 11.2 8,368 54.6
1993 29,927 13.6 14,961 22.0 5,845 11.7 8,503 53.7
1994 28,985 13.1 14,610 21.2 5,439 10.8 8,427 52.9
1995 27,501 12.3 13,999 20.2 4,971 10.0 8,364 50.3
1996 27,376 12.2 13,764 19.8 5,035 10.1 7,990 49.3
1997 26,217 11.6 13,422 19.2 4,759 9.5 7,928 49.0

Table B-6. Composition of Poverty Population for Selected Demographic Groups, Selected Years

Demographic group Year 1
1959 1966 1975 1985 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997

1 Demographic data are for March of the following year.

2 Includes unrelated or single individuals.

3 Hispanic origin may be of any race; therefore numbers add to more than 100 percent.

4 Family includes related children under 18.

Source: 1998 Green Book, Table H-5. Based on data from March Current Population Survey.

Aged 13.9 17.9 12.8 10.5 10.9 10.3 9.6 9.4 9.5
Children 43.6 42.6 42.1 38.8 39.5 39.7 39.6 38.8 39.7
Nonaged adults 42.5 39.5 45.1 50.7 49.7 49.9 50.8 51.8 50.8
Individuals in Female-headed families2 26.3 36.0 47.4 49.5 53.4 52.6 52.8 53.5 52.7
Individuals in All other families2 73.7 64.0 52.6 50.5 46.6 47.4 47.2 46.5 47.3
Blacks 25.1 31.1 29.2 27.0 29.3 28.5 26.8 26.5 25.6
Whites 72.1 67.7 68.7 69.1 66.5 66.4 66.7 67.5 68.6
Other races 2.8 1.2 2.1 3.9 4.2 5.1 6.5 6.0 5.8
Hispanic origin3 NA NA 11.6 15.8 17.9 20.0 22.1 23.8 23.4
Individuals in Families with children4 NA NA NA NA 68.0 68.4 68.0 66.7 NA
Male present NA NA NA NA 30.7 31.4 31.2 30.1 NA
Female head NA NA NA NA 37.2 37.0 36.9 36.5 NA
Individuals in all Other families NA NA NA NA 32.0 31.6 32.0 33.3 NA

Figure B-3. Number of Persons Living in Poverty, Unemployed and Receiving Food Stamps 1 and AFDC, 1959 - 1997

(In millions)

Figure B-3. Number of Persons Living in Poverty, Unemployed and Receiving Food Stamps and AFDC, 1959 - 1997

1 Included in the total of persons receiving foods stamps are those persons served by the Family Food Assistance Program (FFAP) which was the predecessor nutrition assistance program to the Food Stamps Program. In 1962 FFAP had 6.4 million participants but by 1967 the number had dropped to 3 million and by 1974, its last year of significant operation it had 1.4 million participants. The Food Stamp program began in the early 1960s on an experimental basis and served less than 1 million participants until 1967 when it reached 1.4 million participants. By 1974 it served 12.9 million participants.

Notes: To be comparable to the poverty and unemployment data, persons receiving food stamps and AFDC benefits in the territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands) are excluded. Data for food stamp participants are for fiscal years; all of the other data series are for calendar years. The reason that the number of AFDC recipients declined slightly during the 1982 recession, rather than increasing as would be expected, was because of new restrictive eligibility provisions enacted as part of OBRA 1981— effective July 1, 1981 families with incomes greater than 150 percent of a State's standard of need were no longer eligible for AFDC income assistance; this was raised to 185 percent in 1984.

Source: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, National Data Bank of the USDA Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1997," Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and earlier years.


Table B-7. Annual AFDC Benefit Levels by State For a Mother and Two Children with No Earnings, Selected Years 1972 – 1996

State AFDC Benefit Levels (in 1996 dollars) Percent Change in Benefits
1972 1980 1985 1989 1993 1994 1996 1972-89 1989-93 1993-96
Average $8,542 $6,535 $5,792 $5,602 $4,930 $4,834 $4,569 -34.4 -12.0 -7.3
Weighted Average 8,723 6,813 6,134 5,980 5,138 5,005 4,718 -31.4 -14.1 -8.2

Note: Dollars adjusted for inflation using fiscal year average values of the CPI-U-X1 price index. Each state's weight in every year is the state's population of persons under 18 years of age in 1990 (for continuity over time Alaska, Hawaii, and the territories are not included).

Source: DHHS and Ways and Means Committee staff based upon state AFDC benefit data collected by the Congressional Research Service.

Alabama $3,847 $2,701 $2,065 $1,797 $2,134 $2,079 $1,968 -53.3 18.7 -7.8
Arizona 5,842 4,624 4,078 4,462 4,515 4,399 4,164 -23.6 1.2 -7.8
Arkansas 4,453 3,685 3,361 3,107 2,654 2,586 2,448 -30.2 -14.6 -7.8
California 11,363 10,825 10,274 10,570 8,119 7,694 7,152 -7.0 -23.2 -11.9
Colorado 8,086 6,637 6,056 5,434 4,632 4,513 4,272 -32.8 -14.8 -7.8
Connecticut 12,396 9,292 9,959 9,884 8,848 8,620 7,632 -20.3 -10.5 -13.7
Delaware 8,727 6,088 5,023 5,072 4,398 4,285 4,056 -41.9 -13.3 -7.8
District of Columbia 9,155 6,545 5,724 6,229 5,322 5,324 4,980 -32.0 -14.6 -6.4
Florida 5,130 4,462 4,201 4,371 3,943 3,841 3,636 -14.8 -9.8 -7.8
Georgia 4,097 3,753 3,903 4,158 3,643 3,549 3,360 1.5 -12.4 -7.8
Idaho 10,686 7,393 5,321 4,828 4,125 4,018 3,804 -54.8 -14.6 -7.8
Illinois 9,297 6,591 5,969 5,209 4,775 4,779 4,524 -44.0 -8.3 -5.3
Indiana 7,124 5,836 4,481 4,386 3,747 3,651 3,456 -38.4 -14.6 -7.8
Iowa 10,472 8,239 6,301 6,244 5,543 5,400 5,112 -40.4 -11.2 -7.8
Kansas 11,791 7,896 6,844 6,640 5,582 5,438 5,148 -43.7 -15.9 -7.8
Kentucky 6,590 4,303 3,448 3,472 2,967 2,877 3,144 -47.3 -14.6 6.0
Louisiana 4,560 3,959 3,325 2,894 2,472 2,408 2,280 -36.5 -14.6 -7.8
Maine 7,872 6,408 6,472 6,671 5,894 5,299 5,016 -15.3 -11.6 -14.9
Maryland 7,124 6,179 5,758 6,031 4,762 4,728 4,476 -15.3 -21.0 -6.0
Massachusetts 11,683 8,193 7,561 8,209 7,013 7,340 6,780 -29.7 -14.6 -3.3
Michigan (Wayne) 12,004 9,727 6,896 7,082 5,972 5,818 5,508 -41.0 -15.7 -7.8
Minnesota 11,755 9,543 9,242 8,102 6,922 6,744 6,384 -31.1 -14.6 -7.8
Mississippi 1,710 2,197 1,680 1,828 1,561 1,521 1,440 6.9 -14.6 -7.8
Missouri 4,809 5,676 4,796 4,341 3,799 3,701 3,504 -9.7 -12.5 -7.8
Montana 7,872 5,928 6,196 5,468 5,218 5,273 5,256 -30.5 -4.6 0.7
Nebraska 8,977 7,095 6,127 5,544 4,736 4,614 4,368 -38.2 -14.6 -7.8
Nevada 7,409 5,996 4,989 5,026 4,528 4,411 4,176 -32.2 -9.9 -7.8
New Hampshire 10,971 7,918 6,809 7,706 6,714 6,972 6,600 -29.8 -12.9 -1.7
New Jersey 11,043 8,239 7,072 6,458 5,517 5,375 5,088 -41.5 -14.6 -7.8
New Mexico 6,020 5,035 4,516 4,021 4,645 4,830 4,668 -33.2 15.5 0.5
New York 14,035 9,017 8,297 8,209 7,508 7,314 6,924 -41.5 -8.5 -7.8
North Carolina 6,519 4,394 4,306 4,051 3,539 3,448 3,264 -37.9 -12.6 -7.8
North Dakota 10,758 7,644 6,494 5,879 5,322 5,463 5,172 -45.4 -9.5 -2.8
Ohio 7,266 6,019 5,076 4,889 4,437 4,323 4,092 -32.7 -9.2 -7.8
Oklahoma 8,264 6,454 4,936 4,950 4,216 4,107 3,684 -40.1 -14.8 -12.6
Oregon 12,610 8,880 6,757 6,579 5,985 5,831 5,520 -47.8 -9.0 -7.8
Pennsylvania 11,291 7,278 6,371 6,122 5,478 5,337 5,052 -45.8 -10.5 -7.8
Rhode Island 11,185 7,781 7,159 8,270 7,209 7,023 6,648 -26.1 -12.8 -7.8
South Carolina 3,419 2,953 3,273 3,137 2,602 2,535 2,400 -8.2 -17.1 -7.8
South Dakota 10,437 7,347 5,758 5,742 5,426 5,451 5,160 -45.0 -5.5 -4.9
Tennessee 4,097 2,792 2,679 2,802 2,407 2,345 2,220 -31.6 -14.1 -7.8
Texas 4,132 2,655 2,923 2,797 2,394 2,383 2,256 -32.3 -14.4 -5.8
Utah 9,796 8,239 6,581 5,894 5,387 5,248 5,112 -39.8 -8.6 -5.1
Vermont 11,862 11,260 10,205 9,915 8,575 8,240 7,596 -16.4 -13.5 -11.4
Virginia 9,546 5,904 6,196 5,391 4,606 4,487 4,248 -43.5 -14.6 -7.8
Washington 11,683 10,482 8,332 7,493 7,104 6,921 6,552 -35.9 -5.2 -7.8
West Viginia 7,338 4,714 4,359 3,792 3,240 3,207 3,036 -48.3 -14.6 -6.3
Wisconsin 12,716 10,162 9,329 7,874 6,727 6,554 6,204 -38.1 -14.6 -7.8
Wyoming 8,727 5,264 6,301 5,483 4,684 4,563 4,320 -37.2 -14.6 -7.8

Table B-8. Annual AFDC and Food Stamp Benefit Levels by State For a Mother and Two Children with No Earnings, Selected Years 1972 – 1996

State AFDC & Food Stamp Benefit Levels (in 1996 dollars) Percent Change in Benefits
1972 1980 1985 1989 1993 1994 1996 1972-89 1989-93 1993-96
Average $10,769 $9,136 $8,563 $8,411 $8,139 $8,020 $7,876 -21.9 -3.2 -3.2
Weighted Average 10,921 9,331 8,811 8,682 8,286 8,136 7,977 -20.5 -4.6 -3.7

Note: Dollars adjusted for inflation using fiscal year average values of the CPI-U-X1 price index. Each state's weight in every year is the state's population of persons under 18 years of age in 1990 (for continuity over time Alaska, Hawaii, and the territories are not included).

Source: DHHS and Ways and Means Committee staff based upon state AFDC benefit data collected by the Congressional Research Service.

Alabama $7,481 $6,452 $5,706 $5,391 $5,933 $5,818 $5,724 -27.9 10.1 -3.5
Arizona 8,877 7,807 7,347 7,591 7,846 7,707 7,596 -14.5 3.4 -3.2
Arkansas 7,905 7,152 6,844 6,642 6,454 6,325 6,204 -16.0 -2.8 -3.9
California 12,742 12,132 11,684 11,866 10,357 10,014 9,684 -6.9 -12.7 -6.5
Colorado 10,448 9,211 8,731 8,274 7,924 7,783 7,668 -20.8 -4.2 -3.2
Connecticut 13,465 11,063 11,463 11,386 10,878 10,661 10,020 -15.4 -4.5 -7.9
Delaware 10,897 8,828 8,008 8,017 7,755 7,618 7,512 -26.4 -3.3 -3.1
District of Columbia 11,196 9,148 8,498 8,827 8,406 8,354 8,160 -21.2 -4.8 -2.9
Florida 8,379 7,695 7,433 7,527 7,443 7,314 7,224 -10.2 -1.1 -2.9
Georgia 7,655 7,200 7,224 7,377 7,235 7,111 7,032 -3.6 -1.9 -2.8
Idaho 12,269 9,738 8,217 7,847 7,573 7,441 7,344 -36.0 -3.5 -3.0
Illinois 11,296 9,179 8,669 8,195 8,093 8,037 7,908 -27.4 -1.2 -2.3
Indiana 9,775 8,653 7,628 7,537 7,300 7,175 7,092 -22.9 -3.2 -2.8
Iowa 12,118 10,329 8,903 8,838 8,562 8,404 8,256 -27.1 -3.1 -3.6
Kansas 13,042 10,089 9,282 9,403 8,796 8,645 8,472 -27.9 -6.5 -3.7
Kentucky 9,401 7,583 6,905 6,898 6,753 6,617 6,876 -26.6 -2.1 1.8
Louisiana 7,979 7,344 6,819 6,488 6,272 6,148 6,036 -18.7 -3.3 -3.8
Maine 10,298 9,052 9,022 9,136 8,809 8,328 8,184 -11.3 -3.6 -7.1
Maryland 9,775 8,893 8,832 8,958 8,184 8,100 7,968 -8.4 -8.6 -2.6
Massachusetts 12,966 10,297 9,785 10,213 9,590 9,761 9,420 -21.2 -6.1 -1.8
Michigan (Wayne) 13,191 11,366 9,319 9,424 8,861 8,696 8,664 -28.6 -6.0 -2.2
Minnesota 13,016 11,238 10,961 10,139 9,525 9,342 9,144 -22.1 -6.1 -4.0
Mississippi 5,608 5,951 5,321 5,422 5,361 5,261 5,196 -3.3 -1.1 -3.1
Missouri 8,154 8,541 7,848 7,505 7,339 7,213 7,128 -8.0 -2.2 -2.9
Montana 10,298 8,717 8,829 8,294 8,328 8,316 8,352 -19.5 0.4 0.3
Nebraska 11,071 9,531 8,780 8,348 7,989 7,859 7,740 -24.6 -4.3 -3.1
Nevada 9,974 8,765 7,983 7,985 7,846 7,707 7,596 -19.9 -1.7 -3.2
New Hampshire 12,468 10,105 9,258 9,861 9,382 9,507 9,300 -20.9 -4.9 -0.9
New Jersey 12,517 10,329 9,441 9,101 8,640 8,480 8,328 -27.3 -5.1 -3.6
New Mexico 9,002 8,094 7,653 7,281 7,937 8,011 7,944 -19.1 9.0 0.1
New York 15,051 10,872 10,577 10,455 10,136 9,951 9,720 -30.5 -3.1 -4.1
North Carolina 9,351 7,647 7,505 7,303 7,157 7,035 6,960 -21.9 -2.0 -2.7
North Dakota 12,318 9,913 9,037 8,582 8,406 8,455 8,292 -30.3 -2.1 -1.4
Ohio 9,875 8,780 8,045 7,889 7,846 7,656 7,536 -20.1 -0.5 -4.0
Oklahoma 10,572 9,083 7,946 7,932 7,625 7,504 7,260 -25.0 -3.9 -4.8
Oregon 13,626 10,776 9,841 9,612 9,329 9,152 8,964 -29.5 -2.9 -3.9
Pennsylvania 12,692 9,658 8,952 8,753 8,510 8,366 8,208 -31.0 -2.8 -3.5
Rhode Island 12,617 10,009 9,592 10,334 9,798 10,027 9,792 -18.1 -5.2 -0.1
South Carolina 7,181 6,642 6,783 6,663 6,402 6,275 6,156 -7.2 -3.9 -3.8
South Dakota 12,094 9,706 8,523 8,486 8,484 8,442 8,292 -29.8 -0.0 -2.3
Tennessee 7,655 6,530 6,319 6,397 6,207 6,085 5,976 -16.4 -3.0 -3.7
Texas 7,680 6,407 6,538 6,392 6,194 6,123 6,012 -16.8 -3.1 -2.9
Utah 11,645 10,329 9,098 8,593 8,445 8,303 8,256 -26.2 -1.7 -2.2
Vermont 13,091 12,436 11,635 11,407 10,683 10,394 9,996 -12.9 -6.4 -6.4
Virginia 11,470 8,701 8,829 8,241 7,898 7,770 7,656 -28.2 -4.2 -3.1
Washington 12,966 11,893 10,492 9,922 9,993 9,799 9,576 -23.5 0.7 -4.2
West Viginia 9,925 7,871 7,542 7,122 6,948 6,870 6,792 -28.2 -2.4 -2.2
Wisconsin 13,734 11,669 11,022 9,979 9,395 9,216 9,024 -27.3 -5.9 -3.9
Wyoming 10,897 8,254 8,903 8,305 7,963 7,821 7,704 -23.8 -4.1 -3.3

Table B-9. Civilian Unemployment Rate, Selected Years 1979 – 1997

(Percent of Civilian Labor Force)

  1979 1982 1985 1989 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
United States 5.8 9.7 7.2 5.3 7.5 6.9 6.1 5.6 5.4 4.9
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, annual, (data for 1997 available online at http://stats.bls.gov:80/lauhome.htm).
Alabama 7.1 14.4 8.9 7.0 7.4 7.6 6.0 6.3 5.1 5.1
Alaska 9.2 9.9 9.7 6.7 9.2 7.7 7.8 7.3 7.8 7.9
Arizona 5.1 9.9 6.5 5.2 7.6 6.3 6.4 5.1 5.5 4.6
Arkansas 6.2 9.8 8.7 7.2 7.3 6.2 5.3 4.9 5.4 5.3
California 6.2 9.9 7.2 5.1 9.3 9.4 8.6 7.8 7.2 6.3
Colorado 4.8 7.7 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.3 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.3
Connecticut 5.1 6.9 4.9 3.7 7.6 6.3 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.1
Delaware 8.0 8.5 5.3 3.5 5.3 5.3 4.9 4.3 5.2 4.0
Dist. of Columbia 7.5 10.6 8.4 5.0 8.6 8.6 8.2 8.9 8.5 7.9
Florida 6.0 8.2 6.0 5.6 8.3 7.0 6.6 5.5 5.1 4.8
Georgia 5.1 7.8 6.5 5.5 7.0 5.8 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.5
Hawaii 6.3 6.7 5.6 2.6 4.6 4.3 6.1 5.9 6.4 6.4
Idaho 5.7 9.8 7.9 5.1 6.5 6.2 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.3
Illinois 5.5 11.3 9.0 6.0 7.6 7.5 5.7 5.2 5.3 4.7
Indiana 6.4 11.9 7.9 4.7 6.6 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.1 3.5
Iowa 4.1 8.5 8.0 4.3 4.7 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.3
Kansas 3.4 6.3 5.0 4.0 4.3 5.0 5.3 4.4 4.5 3.8
Kentucky 5.6 10.6 9.5 6.2 6.9 6.2 5.4 5.4 5.6 5.4
Louisiana 6.7 10.3 11.5 7.9 8.2 7.5 8.0 6.9 6.7 6.1
Maine 7.2 8.6 5.4 4.1 7.2 7.9 7.4 5.7 5.1 5.4
Maryland 5.9 8.4 4.6 3.7 6.7 6.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.1
Massachusetts 5.5 7.9 3.9 4.0 8.6 6.9 6.0 5.4 4.3 4.0
Michigan 7.8 15.5 9.9 7.1 8.9 7.1 5.9 5.3 4.9 4.2
Minnesota 4.2 7.8 6.0 4.3 5.2 5.1 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.3
Mississippi 5.8 11.0 10.3 7.8 8.2 6.4 6.6 6.1 6.1 5.7
Missouri 4.5 9.2 6.4 5.5 5.7 6.5 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.2
Montana 5.1 8.6 7.7 5.9 6.9 6.1 5.1 5.9 5.3 5.4
Nebraska 3.2 6.1 5.5 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.6
Nevada 5.1 10.1 8.0 5.0 6.7 7.3 6.2 5.4 5.4 4.1
New Hampshire 3.1 7.4 3.9 3.5 7.5 6.6 4.6 4.0 4.2 3.1
New Jersey 6.9 9.0 5.7 4.1 8.5 7.5 6.8 6.4 6.2 5.1
New Mexico 6.6 9.2 8.8 6.7 7.0 7.7 6.3 6.3 8.1 6.2
New York 7.1 8.6 6.5 5.1 8.6 7.8 6.9 6.3 6.2 6.4
North Carolina 4.8 9.0 5.4 3.5 6.0 4.9 4.4 4.3 4.3 3.6
North Dakota 3.7 5.9 5.9 4.3 5.1 4.4 3.9 3.3 3.1 2.5
Ohio 5.9 12.5 8.9 5.5 7.3 6.5 5.5 4.8 4.9 4.6
Oklahoma 3.4 5.7 7.1 5.6 5.7 6.1 5.8 4.7 4.1 4.1
Oregon 6.8 11.5 8.8 5.7 7.6 7.3 5.4 4.8 5.9 5.8
Pennsylvania 6.9 10.9 8.0 4.5 7.6 7.1 6.2 5.9 5.3 5.2
Rhode Island 6.6 10.2 4.9 4.1 9.0 7.8 7.1 7.0 5.1 5.3
South Carolina 5.0 10.8 6.8 4.7 6.3 7.6 6.3 5.1 6.0 4.5
South Dakota 3.5 5.5 5.1 4.2 3.2 3.6 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.1
Tennessee 5.8 11.8 8.0 5.1 6.4 5.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 5.4
Texas 4.2 6.9 7.0 6.7 7.7 7.2 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.4
Utah 4.3 7.8 5.9 4.6 5.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.1
Vermont 5.1 6.9 4.8 3.7 6.7 5.5 4.7 4.2 4.6 4.0
Virginia 4.7 7.7 5.6 3.9 6.4 5.1 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.0
Washington 6.8 12.1 8.1 6.2 7.6 7.6 6.4 6.4 6.5 4.8
West Virginia 6.7 13.9 13.0 8.6 11.4 10.9 8.9 7.9 7.5 6.9
Wisconsin 4.5 10.7 7.2 4.4 5.2 4.7 4.7 3.7 3.5 3.7
Wyoming 2.8 5.8 7.1 6.3 5.7 5.5 5.3 4.8 5.0 5.1

 

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