In this chapter, we consider the evidence for improving employment outcomes for people with psychiatric disorders, to provide background for our discussion of the three targeted subgroups of people with SMI we consider in later sections of this chapter. We begin by describing the evidence on SE services for people with psychiatric disabilities in general and continue by examining evidence for SE and other services in the three study target groups (See Appendix A, for summaries of the studies we reviewed). In Section B, we describe the components of SE and Individual Placement and Support (IPS), a standardized SE model, as well as efforts to enhance and increase access to SE. We then review the existing evidence for improving employment outcomes through SE programs in Section C. In Section D, Section E, and Section F, we consider evidence on employment services for individuals who are now or who are expected to be long-term recipients of mental health services but who do not yet receive disability benefits, workers at risk of job loss due to mental illness, and individuals who experience a first episode (FE) of psychosis, including transition-age youth (TAY). In Section G, we briefly review evidence on other services that might have an impact on employment outcomes.