The data collection systems sponsored by HHS are critical to the HHS mission, and they also provide most of the national statistical capacity to monitor the health of the population and the functioning of the health care, public health and human services systems. Many HHS data systems represent the state of the art in their class, but new challenges are placing increasing demands on these resources. New data needs are arising, significant gaps exist, pressures for improved timeliness are mounting, and costs are increasing. At the same time, new administrative data systems needed to support health reform, and the widespread adoption of EHR systems and electronic information exchange can provide a wealth of new data sources. In sum, there is a need to improve survey efficiencies, to address gaps in data for vulnerable populations and to improve the timeliness of data collection and dissemination. All of these improvements must be accomplished in a manner that protects confidentiality.