Implementation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program. A. Study Sites


In this report, a "study site" is defined as a WtW competitive grantee or a WIB/PIC, which is a subgrantee of a state's formula grantee, with some variants on this general definition. For simplicity, both grantees and subgrantees are referred to as grantees, recognizing that they have similar administrative responsibility for the grant-funded programs.

Eleven WtW grantees were selected for the in-depth component of the evaluation (Table II.1). While grantees were selected to represent a range of characteristics, circumstances across these 11 programs are not necessarily representative of the universe of WtW grantees, but they were purposively selected to achieve diversity in terms of:

  • Geography--urban and rural locations
  • Type of WtW grant funding--competitive, formula, discretionary
  • Type of grantee host agency--private industry council/WIB, community-based nonprofit organization
  • Past experience and success serving welfare recipients
  • Local economic conditions
  • Target populations served
  • Type of program model, including sites with potentially innovative approaches and sites with more typical strategies.

The process analysis focused on one or more programs operating in each study site and funded fully or mainly by one or more WtW grants. In five of the study sites, the grantee agency received both formula and competitive WtW grant funds, two received competitive grants only, and two had formula funds only. The final two study sites had WtW funds plus supplemental funds from other sources--the Wisconsin Department of Corrections contributed funds to the


Table II.1
WtW Evaluation In-depth Study Sites

Study Site

Host/Grantee Agency Name of the Program WtW Funding for the Program
Boston, Massachusetts Office of Jobs and Community Service in the Boston Economic Development and Industrial Corporation Employer-Sponsored Programs Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $11.3 million
Chicago, Illinois Mayor's Office of Workforce Development Welfare-to-Work Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $52 million
Competitive Grant Round 1 $3 million
Competitive Grant Round 2 $5 million
Fort Worth, Texas Tarrant County Workforce Development Board (a.k.a. Work Advantage) Welfare-to-Work Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $4 million
Competitive Grant Round 2 $3.2 million
Southeastern Indiana (19- county area) River Valley Resources, Inc. Welfare-to-Work Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $2 million
Competitive Grant Round 1 $5 million
Milwaukee, Wisconsin Wisconsin Dept. of Corrections, Division of Community Corrections for Region 3 (Milwaukee County) Nontraditional Opportunities for Work (NOW) Program Formula Funds (state's 15%) $1.1 million
DOC Funds $0.8 million
Nashville, Tennessee Nashville Career Advancement Center Nashville Works/ Pathways Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $2.6 million (withdrawn)(9)
Competitive Grant Round 2 $4.2 million
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Transitional Work Corporation Phil@Work Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $15.8 million
Competitive Grant $4.3 million
Formula Funds (state's 15%)

Pew Charitable Trust Grant

$2.3 million
Phoenix, Arizona City of Phoenix Human Services Dept., Employment and Training Division Employment and Respect Now (EARN) Alliance Competitive Grant $5 million
State Formula Grant FY1998 $0.95 million
West Virginia (29-county area) Human Resources Development Foundation Comprehensive Employment Program Competitive Grant Round 2 $4.9 million
Yakima, Washington Tri-Valley Private Industry Council (1999)

Tri-County Workforce Development Council (2000)

Welfare-to-Work Program Formula Grant FY1998, FY1999 $5.8 million
Formula Funds (state's 15%) $0.6 million
Baltimore County, MD; St. Lucie, FL; Long Beach, CA Johns Hopkins University, Institute for Policy Studies, SCANS2000 Career Transcript System (CTS) Multi-site Competitive Grant Round 2 $5 million for 8 sites (3 are included in the evaluation)
Source: Review of grantee applications and information as reported by program administrators during research site visits in 1999, 2000, and 2001.

Milwaukee NOW program for noncustodial fathers on probation or parole, and the Pew Charitable Trust provided funding to the Philadelphia Transitional Work Corporation's Phil@Work program. Program funding levels for the multi-year WtW grants initiatives in the study sites ranged from $1 million to $2 million (Milwaukee and each of the JHU programs) to over $50 million (Chicago).

Two study sites have arrangements and/or funding structures that make them unique from the others. The Philadelphia-TWC Phil@Work program is unique in several respects. It is funded primarily by a philanthropic foundation. The local WIB contributes some WtW funds to the program, as does the state TANF agency, but TWC is not a direct WtW grantee. TWC's program is also just one of a constellation of work programs for welfare recipients operating in Philadelphia. The process analysis component of the evaluation focuses only on Phil@Work because it represents a large-scale subsidized transitional employment model, and is included as an example of a discrete program with that model.

In contrast, Chicago is the largest site included in this study, with over $50 million in WtW grants, about 9,000 participants, and a large number of contractors operating separate programs. The Mayor's Office of Workforce Development is the WIB for the city and, therefore, administers the WtW formula grant. The WIB also received two WtW competitive grants. These WtW grant funds are used to support many contracts, including 19 program service providers. In this report, the 19 separate WtW-funded service contractors in Chicago are grouped into four categories, which generally describe the type of program operating: Immediate Job Placement Programs, Temporary Employment Programs, Business and Industry Partnerships, and Supportive Work/Paid Work Experience Programs.(10)

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