12. Surveys of all grantees nationwide in 1999 also found that in during the first year, enrollment levels were below planned levels and that a year later the pace of enrollment had increased. See Irma Perez-Johnson and Alan Hershey, Early Implementation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Report to Congress, Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc, March 1999; and Irma Perez-Johnson, Alan Hershey, and Jeanne Bellotti, Further Progress, Persistent Constraints: Findings from a Second Survey of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program, Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., April 2000.
13. One possible implication of such specialization could be that other eligibles might be less likely to be serviced. More detailed analysis of the participants in the eleven evaluation study sites will appear in a separate report from the evaluation by Fraker, et al., forthcoming 2003.
14. A more detailed description of outreach and recruitment efforts is in Lynne Fender, Demetra Nightingale, and Alan Hershey, "Welfare-to-Work Grant Programs Tackle Recruitment Challenges," Program Brief, Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. 2000.
15. Chicago and Philadelphia-TWC account for over half the planned participants across the sites. Excluding them, mean planned participation per site was about 930.
16. The 1999 legislative amendments extended the time from three years to five years.
17. Enrollment continued to be very slow in the JHU-Long Beach site as well, but that site is not included in Chart III.2 because that site was not included in the administrative data collection by the evaluation.
18. As discussed in greater detail in another report prepared by Mathematica and The Urban Institute focusing on WtW programs serving NCPs, there are a number of special challenges to recruitment of NCPs. See Karin Martinson, John Trutko, and Debra Strong, Serving Noncustodial Parents: A Descriptive Study of WtW Programs. A Report from the Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program conducted by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Washington DC: The Urban Institute 2000.
19. A summary of selected characteristics of participants by study site appears in Appendix B.