1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Change in TANF Caseloads (last update July 27, 2001) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Total Number of Families Fiscal Year 2001 (last update February 27, 2002) Administration on Children and Families Web site, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/familiesL.htm, accessed April 1, 2002.
2. For example, Geoffrey Wallace and Rebecca M. Blank, "What Goes Up Must Come Down? Explaining Recent Changes in Public Assistance Caseloads," in Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform, edited by Sheldon H. Danziger (Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute), 1999.
3. Originally the evaluation was to analyze individual net impacts and to analyze costs and benefits based on net impacts. As discussed in subsequent chapters, enrollment proceeded more slowly and enrollment levels were lower than expected in the programs. Demand for the program was not adequate to allow random assignment of participants to treatment and control groups. The revised design and data collection instruments for all components of the evaluation were submitted to the Office of Management and Budget and received formal clearance.
4. For results from nationwide surveys of grantees see (1) Irma Perez-Johnson and Alan Hershey, Early Implementation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Report to Congress. Princeton, N.J.NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., March 1999; and (2) Irma Perez-Johnson, Alan Hershey, and Jeanne Bellotti, Further Progress, Persistent Constraints: Findings From a Second Survey of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program. Princeton, N.J.NJ: Mathematica Policy Research Inc., April 2000.
5. For results of the exploratory site visits, see Demetra Smith Nightingale, Terri Thompson, Nancy Pindus, Pamela Holcomb, Edgar Lee, Jesse Valente, and John Trutko, Early Implementation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Programs: Findings from Exploratory Site Visits and Review of Program Plans. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, February 2000.
6. Tribal reports released to date are: (1) Walter Hillabrandt and Mack Rhoades, Jr. The Evaluation of the Tribal Welfare-to WorkWelfare-to-Work Program: Initial Lessons from Tribal Experience. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. 2000; and (2) Walter Hillabrandt, Mack Rhoades, Jr., Nancy Pindus, and John Trutko, The Evaluation of the Tribal Welfare-to WorkWelfare-to-Work Program: Initial Implementation Findings. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. 2001.
7. For results from the first round of visits, see Demetra Smith Nightingale, Program Structure and Service Delivery in Eleven Welfare-to-Work Grant Programs, Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, January 2001.
8. The study sites are presented in the following chapter.