The Implementation of Maternity Group Home Programs: Serving Pregnant and Parenting Teens in a Residential Setting. Endnotes


1  In addition, the enactment of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1935 had reduced the need for maternity group homes by providing financial support for single mothers — whether widowed or unwed — and their children (Cooper 2004).
2  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) included requirements concerning the living arrangements of teenage parents on welfare.  Unmarried minor parents must live with a parent or guardian, with few exceptions, as a condition of receiving benefits.  States are required to provide or facilitate alternative adult-supervised living situations for those unable to live with a parent.
3  A recent review of the literature discussed the methodology of 17 past studies of maternity group homes and summarized their findings on a wide variety of issues (Hulsey 2004).
4  This definition excludes programs that primarily serve a much broader population (such as teens who may not be pregnant or parenting, or pregnant and parenting women who may not be teens) of which only a minority are pregnant or parenting teens.  However, this definition does not exclude homes that serve a few residents who are outside of the teen age range.  Most of the programs discussed in this report serve exclusively residents between the ages of 13 and 21, but a few serve women through their middle or later twenties.
5  Chapter II discusses this issue in detail.
6  In addition to these two types of homes, Massachusetts’ statewide network includes three transitional Supportive Teen Parent Education and Employment Program (STEP) facilities.  STEP homes are apartment-model programs for older teens who have “graduated” from regular TLPs and are deemed ready by program staff to transition to semi-independent living.  STEP programs do not fit the definition of maternity group home used in this study, because they provide considerably less supervision than other homes.  None of the STEPfacilities have 24-hour staff, and some are staffed as little as 20 hours per week.  Residents of STEP homes still receive some supervision and case management and attend group sessions and classes, but less frequently than other TLP residents. 
7  Inwood House officially has capacity to serve 36 residents.  However, the home has been operating well below this capacity for some time and has reduced staff and converted some space for other uses.  Thus, in this report, we consider the home’s capacity to be 24 residents when computing staff ratios and costs per resident.
8  Until recently, one of the other residential programs was a maternity group home, but FOY staff decided to transition this facility into a home for young women (ages 18 to 22), as they felt that there were fewer facilities and greater needs for this population than the young parent population.

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