Significant differences between sites were found on all 19 service use measures (Table 13), and on 27 of 28 client outcome measures (excepting the average cost of medical and dental treatment) (Table 14).
For example, in New York, relatively few clients had someone managing their money (2% at baseline, rising to 4% at 3, 6, and 9-months to 7% by 12-months) (Table 13). In San Francisco, nearly all clients had money managers (85% at baseline and rising to 97-99% from 3 through 12-months). The proportion of clients having money managers in Los Angeles, Martinez and Philadelphia remained fairly constant around 18%, 24%, and 40%, respectively. Other sites showed rapidly increasing proportions of clients receiving money management, including Chattanooga (from 6% at baseline to 20% at 12-months) and Columbus (from 11% at baseline to 49% at 12-months).
Considering an outcomes example, the average number of days housed at baseline ranged from 5 in New York to 42 in San Francisco (Table 14). The spread between low and high remained relatively high at 3-months, ranging from 49 days in Portland to 85 days in San Francisco. However, beginning at 6 months and continuing to 12-months, the variability across sites on this outcome measure decreased, ranging from 78 days in Los Angeles to 90 days in Ft. Lauderdale at 12-months.
After adjusting for service use measures bivariately associated with each outcome, differences in outcomes across sites remained statistically significant on all but four cost measures: medical/dental, substance abuse treatment, inpatient care, and total healthcare costs, suggesting that differences in clinical outcomes are not accounted for by differences in service use (Table 15).