The bulk of the costs incurred when participants were not receiving welfare were paid by non-welfare agencies; welfare agencies provided child care assistance only. Sample members were eligible for one year of transitional child care assistance if they left welfare for work and could also receive income-eligible child care.
As shown in Table 13.3, the average cost of transitional, income-eligible, and other child care ranged from less than $30 per program group member (Riverside LFA and HCD) to $1,883 (Portland). This wide variation in child care payments was seen after two years of follow-up. As explained in the earlier report, Portland's high child care costs may reflect a combination of the following: The program included more families with younger children than most of the other NEWWS programs,(5) the staff believed in the importance of providing child care to everyone who was eligible for it, and integrated case management allowed better administration of child care payments.(6)