How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Trends Over Time in Participation Impacts

12/01/2001

Figure 3.2 presents two-year and five-year participation rates for program and control group members. For each program, the difference between the side-by-side black and white bars represents the program impact for the respective cumulative period. In all seven programs, as indicated by the stars representing statistical significance, program group participation levels were significantly higher than control group levels for both years 1 and 2 and years 1 to 5. Notably, two- and five-year cumulative impacts were similar. For the most part, impacts that were large after two years remained so after five years. Thus, during years 3 to 5, differences between program and control group participation rates were maintained; although, for the most part, impacts did not grow.

Figure 3.2
Two-Year and Five-Year Participation in Emploment-Related Activities, by Research Group

fig3.2.1.gifTwo-Year and Five-Year Participation in Emploment-Related Activities, by Reaserch Group

fig3.2.3.gifTwo-Year and Five-Year Participation in Emploment-Related Activities, by Reaserch Group

fig3.2.5.gifTwo-Year and Five-Year Participation in Emploment-Related Activities, by Reaserch Group

fig3.2.7.gif

SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from the Five-Year Client Survey.
NOTES:  See Appendix A.2.

Five-year cumulative impacts were somewhat smaller than those found after two years in the Atlanta HCD and Portland programs. In all three HCD programs, five-year impacts on job search participation were larger than impacts found after two years. (Results not shown.)