How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Results by Educational Attainment Subgroups

12/01/2001

Table 13.5 shows gross and net costs for those with and without a high school diploma or GED when they entered the evaluation. For the most part, gross and net costs were higher for graduates. This is not surprising, given that those with high school credentials were more likely to participate in higher-cost activities, such as post-secondary education or vocational training, whereas those who lacked these credentials were more likely to participate in typically lower-cost activities, such as basic education.

Table 13.5
Estimated Gross and Net Costs Within a Five-Year Follow-Up Period,
by Program and Education Subgroup (in 1999 dollars)
Program and Component Total Gross Cost per Program Group Member ($) Total Gross Cost per Control Group Member ($) Total Net Cost per Program Group Member ($)
Without a high school diploma or GED
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 3,761 1,118 2,642
Support services 1,469 370 1,099
Total 5,230 1,489 3,741
Atlanta Human Capital Development
Operating costs 5,646 1,118 4,528
Support services 1,982 370 1,612
Total 7,628 1,489 6,140
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 6,244 5,699 544
Support services 493 445 48
Total 6,736 6,144 592
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development
Operating costs 8,789 5,699 3,090
Support services 1,001 445 556
Total 9,790 6,144 3,645
Riverside Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 5,306 2,025 3,282
Support services 309 35 274
Total 5,615 2,060 3,555
Riverside Human Capital Development
Operating costs 6,086 2,025 4,061
Support services 546 35 511
Total 6,632 2,060 4,572
Columbus Integrated
Operating costs 4,564 914 3,650
Support services 1,357 624 733
Total 5,921 1,538 4,383
Columbus Traditional
Operating costs 3,500 914 2,585
Support services 1,078 624 454
Total 4,577 1,538 3,039
Detroit
Operating costs 4,560 3,033 1,527
Support services 781 902 -121
Total 5,341 3,935 1,406
Portland
Operating costs 4,690 2,927 1,763
Support services 2,874 1,346 1,528
Total 7,563 4,273 3,290
With a high school diploma or GED
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 6,259 3,596 2,663
Support services 2,105 559 1,546
Total 8,365 4,155 4,209
Atlanta Human Capital Development
Operating costs 7,207 3,596 3,611
Support services 2,021 559 1,462
Total 9,228 4,155 5,073
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 8,961 7,112 1,849
Support services 958 630 328
Total 9,918 7,741 2,177
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development
Operating costs 10,273 7,112 3,162
Support services 1,440 630 810
Total 11,713 7,741 3,972
Riverside Labor Force Attachment
Operating costs 5,877 3,625 2,252
Support services 581 58 523
Total 6,457 3,682 2,775
Columbus Integrated
Operating costs 5,938 1,790 4,149
Support services 1,524 1,368 157
Total 7,463 3,157 4,305
Columbus Traditional
Operating costs 5,759 1,790 3,969
Support services 1,495 1,368 127
Total 7,253 3,157 4,096
Detroit
Operating costs 5,510 3,292 2,218
Support services 859 589 270
Total 6,370 3,882 2,488
Portland
Operating costs 6,568 5,438 1,131
Support services 3,358 1,540 1,818
Total 9,926 6,978 2,948
SOURCES:  See Table 13.3.
NOTES:  Rounding may cause slight discrepancies in calculating sums and differences.