How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. References

12/01/2001

Achenbach, Thomas M. 1991. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.

Adams, Patricia F., and Marie A. Marano. 1995. "Current Estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1994." National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics 10(193): 111-112.

Allard, Mary Ann, Randy Albelda, Mary Ellen Colten, and Carol Cosenza. 1997. In Harm's Way? Domestic Violence, AFDC Receipt, and Welfare Reform in Massachusetts. Boston: Center for Social Policy Research, University of Massachusetts.

Bane, Mary Jo, and David T. Ellwood. 1983. The Dynamics of Dependence: The Routes to Self Sufficiency. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Bane, Mary Jo, and David T. Ellwood. 1994. Welfare Realities:  From Rhetoric to Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bardach, Eugene. 1993. Improving the Productivity of JOBS Programs. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Baydar, Nazli, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. 1991. "Effects of Maternal Employment and Child-Care Arrangements in Infancy on Preschoolers' Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from the Children of the NLSY." Developmental Psychology 27(6): 932-945.

Berlin, Gordon L. 2000. Encouraging Work, Reducing Poverty: The Impact of Work Incentive Programs. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Berrueta-Clement, John R., Lawrence J. Schweinhart, W. Steven Barnett, Ann S. Epstein, and David P. Weikart. 1984. Changed Lives: The Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Youths Through Age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.

Bloom, Dan. 1997. After AFDC: Welfare-to-Work Choices and Challenges for States. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Bloom, Dan, James Kemple, Pamela Morris, Susan Scrivener, Nandita Verma, and Richard Hendra. 2000a. The Family Transition Program: Final Report on Florida's Initial Time-Limited Welfare. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Bloom, Dan, Laura Melton, Charles Michalopoulos, Susan Scrivener, and Johanna Walter. 2000b. Jobs First: Implementation and Early Impacts of Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Bloom, Dan, and Charles Michalopoulos. 2001. How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Employment and Income: A Synthesis of Research. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Bos, Johannes M., Aletha C. Huston, Robert C. Granger, Greg J. Duncan, Thomas W. Brock, and Vonnie C. McLoyd. 1999. New Hope for People with Low Incomes: Two-Year Results of a Program to Reduce Poverty and Reform Welfare. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Bos, Johannes M., Susan Scrivener, Jason Snipes, and Gayle Hamilton. 2001. Improving Basic Skills: The Effects of Adult Education in Welfare-to-Work Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Bos, Johannes M., and Wanda G. Vargas. 2001. Maternal Employment and Changes in Adolescent Outcomes: Evidence from Two Evaluations of Programs to Promote Work. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development biennial meeting, Minneapolis.

Brock, Thomas, and Kristen Harknett. 1998. Welfare-to-Work Case Management: A Comparison of Two Models. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, and Lisa Berlin. 1993. A Consideration of Self-Sufficiency and Parenting in the Context of the Teenage Parent Demonstration Program. Paper presented at the Second National Head Start Conference, symposium "Effects of a Two-Generation Program on Mothers and Children: The Teenage Parent Demonstration." Washington, DC

Brown, Brett, Sharon Vandivere, Laura Duberstein Lindberg, Scott Boggess, Laura Porter, and Sean Williams. 1999. Trends in the Well-Being of America's Children and Youth, 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Stock no. 017-022-01484-0. From web site: <http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/99trends/intro.pdf>

Campbell, Frances A., and Craig T. Ramey. 1994. "Effects of Early Intervention on Intellectual and Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study of Children from Low-Income Families." Child Development 65(2): 684-698.

Capizzano, Jeffrey, Kathryn Tout, and Gina Adams. 2000. Child Care Patterns of School-Age Children with Employed Mothers. Occasional paper no. 41. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Caspi, Avshalom, Bradley R. Wright, Terrie E. Moffit, and Paul A. Silva. 1998. "Early Failure in the Labor Market: Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Unemployment in the Transition to Adulthood." American Sociological Review 63(June): 424-451.

Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). 1995. The CLASP Guide to Welfare Waivers: 1992-1995. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

Center on Social Welfare Policy and Law. 1994. Living at the Bottom: An Analysis of 1994 AFDC Benefit Levels. Washington, DC: Center on Social Welfare Policy and Law.

Child Trends. December 2000. Web site: <http://www.childtrends.org>

Cohen, Jacob, ed. 1977. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, rev. ed. New York: Academic Press.

Cohen, Jacob, ed. 1988. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press.

Coie, John D., and Kenneth A. Dodge. 1983. "Continuity of Children's Social Status: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 29: 261-282.

Connell, Jim P. 1990. The Research Assessment Package for Schools, Student Self-Report. Unpublished. University of Rochester.

Cooper, Harris, and Larry V. Hedges, eds. 1994. The Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Cowen, Emory L., Andreas Pederson, Haroutun Babigian, Louis D. Izzo, and Mary A. Trost. 1973. "Long Term Follow-up of Early Detected Vulnerable Children." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 41: 438-446.

Danziger, Sandra, Mary Corcoran, Sheldon Danziger, Colleen Heflin, Ariel Kalil, Judith Levine, Daniel Rosen, Kristin Seefeldt, Kristine Siefert, and Richard M. Tolman. 1999. Barriers to the Employment of Welfare Recipients. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Poverty Research and Training Center.

Dodoo, Martey. 2000. Evaluating Alternative Welfare-to-Work Approaches: Four-Year Impacts for Eleven Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Duncan, Greg, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. 1997. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Duncan, Greg, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela Kato Klebanov. 1994. "Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development." Child Development 65(2): 296-318.

Duncan, Greg, and Katherine Magnuson. 2001. Off with Hollingshead: Socioeconomic Resources, Parenting, and Child Development. Unpublished manuscript.

Eberts, Randall W. 1997. "The Use of Profiling to Target Services in State Welfare-to-Work Programs: An Example of Process and Implementation." Working paper no. WP00098-052. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Families USA Foundation. 1999. Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform. Washington DC. From web site: <http://www.familiesusa.org>

Farber, Henry, and Helen Levy. 2000. Recent Trends in Employer Sponsored Health Coverage: Are Bad Jobs Getting Worse? National Bureau for Economic Research. Working paper no. # 6709.

Farrell, Mary. 2000. Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Two-Year Impacts of the Detroit Welfare-to-Work Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Farrington, David P. 1987. "Early Precursors of Frequent Offending." In James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury, eds. From Children to Citizens: Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Findlay, Steven, and Joel Miller. 1999. Down a Dangerous Path: The Erosion of Health Insurance Coverage in the United States. National Coalition on Health Care. From web site: <http://www.urbaninstitute.org>

Freedman, Stephen. 2000. Four-Year Impacts of Ten Programs on Employment Stability and Earnings Growth. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Freedman, Stephen, Daniel Friedlander, Gayle Hamilton, JoAnn Rock, Marisa Mitchell, Jodi Nudelman, Amanda Schweder, and Laura Storto. 2000a. Evaluating Alternative Welfare-to-Work Approaches: Two-Year Impacts for Eleven Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Freedman, Stephen, Daniel Friedlander, Winston Lin, and Amanda Schweder. 1996. Five-Year Impacts on Employment, Earnings, and AFDC Receipt. GAIN Evaluation, Working paper no. 96.1. Prepared by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Freedman, Stephen, Jean Knab, Lisa A. Gennetian, and David Navarro. 2000b. The Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN Evaluation: Final Report on a Work First Program in a Major Urban Center. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Freeman, Richard B., and David G. Blanchflower. 1999. Youth Employment and Joblessness in Advanced Countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Friedlander, Daniel. 1988. Subgroup Impacts and Performance Indicators for Selected Welfare Employment Programs. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Friedlander, Daniel, and Gary Burtless. 1995. Five Years After: The Long-Term Effects of Welfare-to-Work Programs. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Friedlander, Daniel, Stephen Freedman, Gayle Hamilton, and Janet Quint. 1987. Final Report on Job Search and Work Experience in Cook County. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Friedlander, Daniel, and Gayle Hamilton. 1993. The Saturation Work Initiative Model in San Diego: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Friedlander, Daniel, Gregory Hoerz, David Long, and Janet Quint. 1985a. Maryland: Final Report on the Employment Initiatives Evaluation. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Friedlander, Daniel, Gregory Hoerz, Janet Quint, and James Riccio. 1985b. Arkansas: Final Report on the WORK Program in Two Counties. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Gallup-Black, Adria. 1999. Using Audio-CASI to Collect Data on Domestic Violence. Mimeo. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Gaquin, Deirdre A., and Mark S. Littman, eds. 1999. 1999 County and City Extra: Annual Metro, City, and County Data Book. Washington, DC: Bernan Press.

Gennetian, Lisa, and Cynthia Miller. 2000. Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program. Vol. 2: Effects on Children. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Goldman, Barbara, Daniel Friedlander, and David Long. 1986. California: Final Report on the San Diego Job Search and Work Experience Demonstration. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Greenberg, Mark. 1992. How States Can Reduce Welfare's Work Penalties: The "Fill-the-Gap" Option. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.

Greenstein, Robert, and Jocelyn Guyer. 2001. "Supporting Work Through Medicaid and Food Stamps" In Rebecca Blank and Ron Haskins, eds. The New World of Welfare. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Gresham, Frank M., and Stephen N. Elliot. 1990. Social Skills Rating System Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Gueron, Judith M., and Edward Pauly. 1991. From Welfare to Work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Guyer, Jocelyn, and Cindy Mann. 1999. Employed But Not Insured: A State-by-State Analysis of the Number of Low-Income Working Parents Who Lack Health Insurance. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

Haimson, Joshua, and Alan Hershey. 1997. Getting Help to Stay Employed: The Use of Post-Employment Services. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Haimson, Joshua, Alan Hershey, and Anu Rangarajan. 1995. Providing Services to Promote Job Retention. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Haley, Jennifer, and Stephen Zuckerman. 2000. Health Insurance, Access and Use: United States, Tabulations from the 1997 National Survey of American Families. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. From web site: <http://www.nchc.org>

Hall, George E., and Deirdre A. Gaquin, eds. 1997. 1997 County and City Extra: Annual Metro, City, and County Data Book. Lanham, MD: Bernan Press.

Hamilton, Gayle. 1988. Interim Report on the Saturation Work Initiative Model in San Diego. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Hamilton, Gayle. 1995. The JOBS Evaluation: Monthly Participation Rates in Three Sites and Factors Affecting Participation Levels in Welfare-to-Work Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Hamilton, Gayle. 2000. Do Mandatory Welfare-to-Work Programs Affect the Well-Being of Children? A Synthesis of Child Research Conducted as Part of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and Administration for Children and Families; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Hamilton, Gayle, and Thomas Brock. 1994. The JOBS Evaluation: Early Lessons from Seven Sites. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Hamilton, Gayle, Thomas Brock, Mary Farrell, Daniel Friedlander, and Kristen Harknett. 1997. Evaluating Two Welfare-to-Work Program Approaches: Two-Year Findings on the Labor Force Attachment and Human Capital Development Programs in Three Sites. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Hamilton, Gayle, and Daniel Friedlander. 1989. Final Report on the Saturation Work Initiative Model in San Diego. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Hamilton, Gayle, and Susan Scrivener. 1999. Promoting Participation: How to Increase Involvement in Welfare-to-Work Activities. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Harknett, Kristen, and Lisa Gennetian. 2001. How an Earnings Supplement Affects the Marital Behavior of Welfare Recipients: Evidence from the Canadian Self-Suffiency Project. Working paper. Ottawa: Social Research and Demonstration Corporation.

Harvey, Elizabeth. 1999. "Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Early Parental Employment on Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Developmental Psychology 35(2): 445-459.

Haskins, Ron. 2001. "Effects of Welfare Reform on Family Income and Poverty." In Rebecca Blank and Ron Haskins, eds. The New World of Welfare. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Hatcher, Larry. 1994. Step-by-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.

Haveman, Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings." Journal of Economic Literature 33(1): 1829-1878.

Hoffman, Lois W., and Lise Youngblade. 1999. Mothers at Work: Effects on Children's Well-Being. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Holahan, John, and Niall Brennan. 2000. What Are the Adult Uninsured? Urban Institute. Assessing New Federalism Policy Brief, series B, no. B-14.

Hotz, V. Joseph, Guido Imbens, and Jacob A. Klerman. 2000. "The Long-Term Gains from GAIN: A Re-Analysis of the Impacts of the California GAIN Program." Working paper no. W8007. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Kaplan, April. 1997. "Domestic Violence and Welfare Reform." Welfare Information Network Issue Notes. Vol. 1, no. 8 (September).

Kaplan, Jan. 1997. "Transitional Medicaid Assistance." Welfare Information Network Issue Notes. Vol. 1, no. 9 (December).

Kemple, James J., and Joshua Haimson. 1994. Florida's Project Independence: Program Implementation, Participation Patterns, and First-Year Impacts. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Kemple, James J., Daniel Friedlander, and Veronica Fellerath. 1995. Florida's Project Independence: Benefits, Costs, and Two-Year Impacts of Florida's JOBS Program. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Knab, Jean Tansey, Johannes M. Bos, Daniel Friedlander, and Joanna Weissman. 2001. Do Mandates Matter? The Effects of a Mandate to Enter a Welfare-to-Work Program. Prepared by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Knab, Jean Tansey, and Stephen Freedman. 1996a. Preliminary Impacts on Employment, Earnings, and AFDC Receipt for the Detroit JOBS Program. JOBS Evaluation. Working paper no. 96.1. Prepared by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Knab, Jean Tansey, and Stephen Freedman. 1996b. Preliminary Impacts on Employment, Earnings, and AFDC Receipt for the Oklahoma City JOBS Program. JOBS Evaluation, Working paper no. 96.3. Prepared by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Knox, Virginia, Cynthia Miller, and Lisa A. Gennetian. 2000. Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: A Summary of the Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Lamb, Michael. 1998. "Nonparental Child Care: Context, Quality, Correlates and Consequences." In Irving E. Siegel and K. Ann Renninger, eds. Handbook of Child Psychology, 4th ed. New York: Wiley.

Levine, Phillip B., and David J. Zimmerman. 2000. "Children's Welfare Exposure and Subsequent Development." Working paper no. 130. Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University and University of Chicago, Joint Center for Poverty Research.

Lipsey, Mark W. 1990. Design Sensitivity: Statistical Power for Experimental Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Long, David, and Virginia Knox. 1985. Documentation of the Data Sources and Analytical Methods Used in the Benefit-Cost Analysis of the EPP/EWEP Program in San Diego. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Lyon, Eleanor. 2000. "Welfare, Poverty and Abused Women: New Research and Its Implications." Mimeo. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence.

Magnuson, Katherine, and Sharon M. McGroder. 2001. "From ABEs to 1,2,3s: The Effect of Maternal Education on Young Children's School Readiness." Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Welfare Reform Evaluation Conference, May 22-24, sponsored by the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

Martinson, Karin. 2000. The Experiences of Welfare Recipients Who Find Jobs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and Administration for Children and Families; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Masten, Ann S., J. Douglas Coatsworth, Jennifer Neemann, Scott D. Gest, Auke Tellegen, and Norman Garmezy. 1995. "The Structure and Coherence of Competence from Childhood Through Adolescence." Child Development 66(6): 1635-1659.

Mayer, Susan. 1997. What Money Can't Buy: Family Income and Family's Life Chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

McGroder, Sharon M. 2000. "Parenting Among Low-Income, African-American Single Mothers with Preschool-Age Children: Patterns, Predictors, and Developmental Correlates." Child Development 71(3): 752-771 STYLE="font-family: TmsRmn">.

McGroder, Sharon M., Martha J. Zaslow, Kristin A. Moore, and Suzanne M. LeMenestrel. 2000. Impacts on Young Children and Their Families Two Years After Enrollment: Findings from the Child Outcomes Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and Administration for Children and Families; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

McLanahan, Sara. 1997. "Parental Absence or Poverty: Which Matters More?" In Greg J. Duncan and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

McLoyd, Vonnie C., Toby Epstein Jayaratne, Rosario Ceballo, and Julio Borquez. 1994. "Unemployment and Work Interruption Among African-American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning." Child Development 65(2): 562-589.

Michalopoulos, Charles. 2001. "Sustained Employment and Earnings Growth: New Experimental Evidence on Earnings Supplements and Pre-Employment Services." In Richard Kazis and Marc S. Miller, eds. Low-Wage Workers in the New Economy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Michalopoulos, Charles, and Gordon Berlin. 2001. "Financial Work Incentives for Low-Wage Workers." In Rebecca Blank and Ron Haskins, eds. The New World of Welfare. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Michalopoulos, Charles, and Christine Schwartz. 2001. What Works Best for Whom: Impacts of 20 Welfare-to-Work Programs by Subgroup. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Miller, Cynthia. 1997. "Updated MFIP Impacts." MDRC memo.

Miller, Cynthia, Virginia Knox, Lisa Gennetian, Martey Dodoo, JoAnna Hunter, and Cindy Redcross. 2000. Reforming Welfare and Rewarding Work: Final Report on the Minnesota Family Investment Program: Vol. 1: Effects on Adults. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation

Mincer, Jacob. 1974. Schooling, Experience, and Earnings. New York: Columbia University Press.

Moore, Kristin A., and Anne Driscoll. 1997. "Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children: A Study." Future of Children 7(1): 122-127.

Moore, Kristin A. and Dana Glei. 1995. "Taking the Plunge: An Examination of Positive Youth Development." Journal of Adolescent Research 10(1): 15-40.

Moore, Kristin A., David E. Myers, Donna R. Morrison, Christine W. Nord, Brett V. Brown, and Barry Edmonston. 1993. "Age at First Birth and Later Poverty." Journal of Research on Adolescence 3(4): 393-422.

Morris, Pamela A., Aletha C. Huston, Greg J. Duncan, Danielle A. Crosby, and Johannes M. Bos. 2001. How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Children: A Synthesis of Research. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Morris, Pamela A., and Charles Michalopoulos. 2000. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects on Children of a Program That Increased Parental Employment and Income. Ottawa: Social Research and Demonstration Corporation.

Mortimer, Jeylan T., Michael D. Finch, Seongryeol Ryu, Michael J. Shanahan, and Kathleen T. Call. 1996. "The Effects of Work Intensity on Adolescent Mental Health, Achievement, and Behavioral Adjustment: New Evidence from a Perspective Study." Child Development 67(3): 1243-1261.

Mullahy, John, and Barbara Wolfe. 2000. "Health Policies for the Nonelderly Poor." Focus 21(2): 32-37.

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. 2000. "The Relation of Child Care to Cognitive and Language Development." Child Development 71(4): 960-980.

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development. Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ohls, James C., and Harold Beebout. 1993. The Food Stamp Program: Design Tradeoffs, Policy, and Impacts: A Mathematica Policy Research Study. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Parker, Jeffrey G., and Steven R. Asher. 1987. "Peer Relations and Later Personal Adjustment: Are Low-Accepted Children at Risk?" Psychological Bulletin 102(3): 357-389.

Pavetti, LaDonna A. 1992. "The Dynamics of Welfare and Work: Exploring the Process by Which Young Women Work Their Way Off Welfare." Prepared for the APPAM Annual Research Conference, October 29, Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Pavetti, Ladonna, and Dan Bloom. 2001. "State Sanctions and Time Limits." In Rebecca Blank and Ron Haskins, eds. The New World of Welfare. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Petit, Gregory S., John E. Bates, Kenneth A. Dodge, and Darrell W. Meece. 1999. "The Impact of After-School Peer Contact on Early Adolescent Externalizing Problems As Moderated by Parental Monitoring, Perceived Neighborhood Safety, and Prior Adjustment." Child Development 70(3): 768-778.

Phillips, Deborah A., Miriam Voran, Ellen Kisker, Carollee Howes, and Marcy Whitebook. 1994. "Child Care for Children in Poverty: Opportunity or Inequity?" Child Development 65(2): 472-494.

Polachek, Solomon, and Stanley W. Siebert. 1993. The Economics of Earning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Posner, Jill K., and Deborah L. Vandell. 1994. "Low-Income Children's After-School Care: Are There Beneficial Effects of After-School Programs?" Child Development 65(2): 440-456.

Primus, Wendell, Lynette Rawlings, Kathy Larin, and Kathryn Porter. 1999. The Initial Impacts of Welfare Reform on the Incomes of Single-Mother Families. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. From web site: <http://www.cbpp.org/8-22-99wel.pdf>

Quint, Janet C., Johannes M. Bos, and Denise F. Polit. 1997. New Chance: Final Report of a Comprehensive Program for Young Mothers in Poverty and Their Children. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Quint, Janet, and Rebecca Widom. 2001. Post-TANF Food Stamp and Medicaid Benefits: Factors That Aid or Impede Receipt. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Rangarajan, Anu, and Tim Novak. 1999. The Struggle to Sustain Employment: The Effectiveness of the Post-Employment Services Demonstration. Final Report. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Rangarajan, Anu, Peter Schochet, and Dexter Chu. 1998. Employment Experiences of Welfare Recipients Who Find Jobs: Is Targeting Possible? Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Raphael, Jody. 1996. "Domestic Violence and Welfare Receipt: Toward a New Feminist Theory of Welfare Dependency." Harvard Women's Law Journal 19: 201-27.

Raphael, Jody, and Richard M. Tolman. 1997. Trapped by Poverty, Trapped by Abuse: New Evidence Documenting the Relationship Between Domestic Violence and Welfare. A research compilation from the Project for Research on Welfare, Work, and Domestic Violence. Chicago and Ann Arbor: Taylor Institute and the University of Michigan Research Development Center on Poverty, Risk, and Mental Health.

Riccio, James, George Cave, Stephen Freedman, and Marilyn Price. 1986. Virginia: Final Report on the Employment Services Program. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Riccio, James, and Stephen Freedman. 1995. Can They All Work? A Study of the Employment Potential of Welfare Recipients in a Welfare-to-Work Program. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Riccio, James, and Daniel Friedlander. 1992. GAIN: Program Strategies, Participation Patterns, and First-Year Impacts in Six Counties. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Riccio, James, Daniel Friedlander, and Stephen Freedman. 1994. GAIN: Benefits, Costs, and Three-Year Impacts of a Welfare-to-Work Program. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Riccio, James, Barbara Goldman, Gayle Hamilton, Karin Martinson, and Alan Orenstein. 1989. GAIN: Early Implementation Experiences and Lessons. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Riger, Stephanie, Courtney Ahrens, and Amy Blickenstaff. 2001. "Measuring Interference with Employment and Education Reported by Women with Abusive Partners: Preliminary Data." In K. Daniel O'Leary and Roland D. Maiuro, eds. Psychological Abuse in Violent Domestic Relations. New York: Springer.

Riger, Stephanie, and Maryann Krieglstein. 2000. "The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence Against Women." American Journal of Community Psychology 28(5): 631-47.

Scholz, John Karl. 1996. "In-Work Benefits in the United States: The Earned Income Tax Credit." Economic Journal 106 (January): 156-169.

Scrivener, Susan, Gayle Hamilton, Mary Farrell, Stephen Freedman, Daniel Friedlander, Marisa Mitchell, Jodi Nudelman, and Christine Schwartz. 1998. Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Two-Year Impacts of the Portland (Oregon) Welfare-to-Work Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Scrivener, Susan, and Johanna Walter. 2001. Evaluating Two Approaches to Case Management: Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Three-Year Impacts of the Columbus Welfare-to-Work Program. Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

State Policy Documentation Project. November 2000. Web site: <http://www.spdp.org >

Steinberg, Laurence, and Sanford M. Dornbusch. 1991. "Negative Correlates of Part-Time Employment During Adolescence: Replication and Elaboration." Developmental Psychology 27(2): 304-313.

Storto, Laura, Gayle Hamilton, Christine Schwartz, and Susan Scrivener. 2000. Oklahoma City's ET & E Program: Two-Year Implementation, Participation, Cost, and Impact Findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Strawn, Julie, and Karin Martinson. 2000. Steady Work and Better Jobs: How to Help Low-Income Parents Sustain Employment and Advance in the Work Force. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Sum, Andrew, Robert Taggart, and Neal Fogg. 1995. Dreams to Dust: The Deteriorating Labor Market Fortunes of Young Adult Men and Women in the United States, 1967-1994. Boston: Northeastern University, Center for Labor Market Studies.

Tout, Kathryn, Martha J. Zaslow, Angela R. Papillo, and Sharon Vandivere. 2001. "Early Care and Education: Work Support for Families and Developmental Opportunity for Young Children." Assessing the New Federalism. Occasional paper no. 51. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Urban Institute. December 2000. National Survey of American Families. Web site: <http://www.newfederalism.urban.org>

U.S. Bureau of the Census. December 2000. Web site: <http://www.census.gov>

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 1995. Approaching Kindergarten: A Look at Preschoolers in the United States, 1995. NCES 95-280, by Nicholas Zill, Mary Collins, Jerry West, and Elvie G. Hausken. Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 1997. The Condition of Education, 1997. NCES 97-388, by Thomas M. Smith, Beth Aronstamm Young, Yupin Bae, Susan P. Choy, and Nabeel Alsalam. Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2001. Dropout Rates in the United States: 1999. NCES 2001-022, by Phillip Kauffman, Jin Y. Kwon, Steve Klein, and Christopher Chapman. Washington, DC. From web site: <http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001022.pdf>

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. December 2000. Web site: <http://www.nces.ed.gov>

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1996. Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of AFDC Recipients, FY 1994. Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. January 1998. Web site: <http://www.bls.gov>

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. October 2000. Web site: <http://www.bls.gov>

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2000. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, 1986-99. Washington, DC. From web site: <http://stats.bls.gov/special.requests/ocwc/oclt/ect/ecbl0013.pdf>

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. December 2000. Web site: <http://www.nces.ed.gov>

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. 1994. 1994 Green Book: Background Material and Data on Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. 1996. 1996 Green Book: Background Material and Data on Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. 1998. 1998 Green Book: Background Material and Data on Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. 2000. 2000 Green Book: Background Material and Data on Programs Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Vandell, Deborah L., and Janaki Ramanan. 1992. "Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families." Child Development 63(4): 938-949.

Vandell, Deborah L., and Barbara Wolfe. 2000. Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Vernon-Feagans, Lynne, Diana C. Emanuel, and Ingrid Blood. 1997. "The Effects of Otitis Media and Quality of Daycare on Children's Language Development." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 18(3): 395-409.

Wilson, Julie Boatright, and David T. Ellwood. 1993. Welfare to Work Through the Eyes of Children: The Impacts on Children of Parental Movement from AFDC to Employment. Cambridge, MA: Malcolm Weiner Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Wilson, Julie Boatright, David T. Ellwood, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. 1995. "Welfare-to-Work Through the Eyes of Children." In P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, eds. Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Woodcock, Richard W., and M. Bonner Johnson. 1989, 1990. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery  Revised. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.

Woodcock, Richard W., and Nancy Mather. 1989, 1990. "WJ-R Tests of Achievement: Examiner's Manual." In Richard W. Woodcock and M. Bonner Johnson, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery  Revised. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu. 1995. "Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Social Outcomes and Delinquency." Future of Children 5(3): 51-75.

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu. 1999. "Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Cognitive Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform." Child Development 70(3): 779-801.

Zaslow, Martha J. 1991. "Variation in Child Care Quality and Its Implications for Children." Journal of Social Issues 47(2): 125-138.

Zaslow, Martha J., and Carolyn A. Eldred, eds. 1998. Parenting Behavior in a Sample of Young Mothers in Poverty: Results of the New Chance Observational Study. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

Zaslow, Martha J., and Carol A. Emig. 1997. "When Low-Income Mothers Go to Work: Implications for Children." Future of Children 7(1): 110-116.

Zaslow, Martha J., Sharon M. McGroder, George Cave, and Carrie Mariner. 1999a. "Maternal Employment and Child Outcomes Among Families with Some History of Welfare Receipt." In Randy Hodson, series ed., and Toby L. Parcel, vol. ed. Research in the Sociology of Work Vol. 7, Work and Family. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Zaslow, Martha J., Sharon M. McGroder, Kristin A. Moore, and Suzanne M. LeMenestrel. 1999b. "Behavior Problems and Cognitive School Readiness Among Children in Families with a History of Welfare Receipt: Diverging Patterns and Their Predictors." Prepared for Society for Research in Child Development meetings, April 15, Albuquerque, NM.

Zaslow, Martha J., Sharon M. McGroder, Kristin A. Moore. 2000. Summary Report: Impacts on Young Children and Their Families Two Years After Enrollment: Findings from the Child Outcomes Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; and U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary and Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

Zaslow, Martha J., Kristin A. Moore, Jennifer L. Brooks, Pamela Morris, Kathryn Tout, Zakia Reed, and Carol A. Emig. Forthcoming. "Experimental Studies of Welfare Reform and Children." Future of Children.

Zaslow, Martha J., Kristin A. Moore, Donna Ruane Morrison, and Mary Jo Coiro. 1995. "The Family Support Act and Children: Potential Pathways of Influence." Children and Youth Services Review 17(1-3): 231-249.

Zaslow, Martha J., Erin Oldham, Ellen Magenheim, and Kristin A. Moore. 1998. "Welfare Families' Use of Early Childhood Care and Education Programs, and Implications for Their Children's Development." Early Childhood Research Quarterly 13(4): 535-563.