How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Non-Welfare Agency Expenditures


When sample members were not receiving welfare benefits, they most commonly participated in basic education, post-secondary education, and vocational training; some sample members participated in other activities (job search, unpaid work experience, and on-the-job training).(7) These costs ranged from about $1,000 (Riverside HCD) to about $2,500 (Grand Rapids LFA and HCD and Portland). The programs in Grand Rapids and Portland had high rates of self-initiated participation, particularly in education and training activities. As will be discussed later, this was also true for control group members in these programs.