How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Non-Welfare Agency Expenditures


Table 13.3 (column 2) shows the non-welfare agency cost of providing employment-related services. These costs ranged from $1,680 (Portland) to $5,288 (Grand Rapids HCD). As discussed above, Portland's low non-welfare agency costs reflect the fact that the welfare department paid for the majority of in-program activities (except for vocational training and college). The costs were high in Grand Rapids, especially for the HCD program, because job search services were provided and paid for by the local community education center and because of the extensive use of education and training activities, which also were not paid for by the welfare department.