How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Impacts on Employment-Related Services and Degree Receipt


This chapter examines the extent to which the mandatory NEWWS employment- and education-focused programs actually increased sample members' participation in employment-related activities. The findings presented below demonstrate that participation differences between program and control group members (in all seven sites with five-year survey data) and between LFA and HCD program group members (in the three LFA-HCD sites) are substantial. This chapter therefore confirms that the NEWWS Evaluation represents a legitimate test of the relative effectiveness of different welfare-to-work program approaches. In addition to participation outcomes, the chapter also discusses whether education-focused programs increased the percentage of sample members who attained GED certificates or other education credentials after random assignment, a key impact measure for these types of programs. Results are presented for the full sample and for subgroups of people who were high school graduates ("graduates") or high school nongraduates ("nongraduates") as of random assignment. Data on participation, from the Five-Year Client Survey, are available for seven of the NEWWS programs: the LFA and HCD programs in Atlanta, Grand Rapids, and Riverside, and the Portland program.