How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Impacts on Employment and Earnings


Welfare-to-work programs have two primary goals: reducing welfare use and increasing employment. This chapter explores the success of the programs studied in the NEWWS Evaluation in achieving the second of these goals by presenting their effects on employment and earnings over the five years after people were randomly assigned. The chapter also investigates whether employment-focused programs had larger initial effects than education-focused programs, whether the effects of education-focused programs had surpassed those of employment-focused programs by the five-year point, and which approach was more successful for high school graduates and nongraduates. Special attention is given to a direct comparison of results for the LFA and HCD programs in Atlanta, Grand Rapids, and Riverside, because these findings provide the most reliable evidence of the relative benefits of each approach.