As shown in Table 3.6, education and training credential receipt was prevalent among control group members who already had a high school diploma or GED certificate at study entry, although less so in both Atlanta programs. Trade licenses were by far the most common type of credential earned for this subgroup; very few individuals obtained college degrees. Atlanta HCD, the only program to increase graduate sample members' vocational training participation, also increased trade license receipt for this subgroup. The only other program to have this effect was the Atlanta LFA program. In Grand Rapids, where graduate control group members' self-initiated participation in post-secondary education and vocational training was common throughout the follow-up period, the LFA program actually decreased credential receipt for graduates, likely by diverting to job search sample members who would have participated in education or training activities on their own (and thus possibly have obtained an education credential). This pattern is also reflected in the participation impacts discussed in Section V.
Site and Program
|Sample Size||Program Group (%)||Control Group (%)||Difference (Impact)||Percentage Change (%)|
|Received any education or training credential|
|Atlanta Labor Force Attachment||664||20.4||13.2||7.2 **||54.7|
|Atlanta Human Capital Development||709||26.9||13.2||13.7 ***||104.2|
|Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment||663||18.3||29.8||-11.5 ***||-38.7|
|Grand Rapids Human Capital Development||641||28.7||29.8||-1.0||-3.4|
|Riverside Labor Force Attachment||562||20.5||25.4||-4.9||-19.2|
|Received a trade license or certificate|
|Atlanta Labor Force Attachment||664||16.8||12.0||4.9 *||40.8|
|Atlanta Human Capital Development||709||23.6||12.0||11.6 ***||97.3|
|Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment||663||15.5||22.5||-7.0 **||-31.2|
|Grand Rapids Human Capital Development||641||26.1||22.5||3.6||16.1|
|Riverside Labor Force Attachment||562||18.1||22.9||-4.8||-21.1|
|SOURCE: MDRC calculations from the Five-Year Client Survey.
NOTES: See Appendix A.2.