Control group costs reflect the cost of participation in employment-related services, most of which was self-initiated. However, in the sites where control embargoes were lifted before the end of the five-year follow-up period, a small portion of participation was program-related.(9)
In general, control group costs were high. This was particularly true in Grand Rapids and Portland owing to high rates of self-initiated participation, especially in post-secondary education and vocational training activities. The average control group cost in the GAIN program was $1,638 (in 1999 dollars). The control group costs in Grand Rapids and Portland were about three times higher than the highest control group cost in the GAIN program, which was $2,233 (in 1999 dollars) in San Diego. The control group costs in the other NEWWS programs ranged from 8 percent (Riverside HCD) to 76 percent (Detroit) higher.