How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Gross Costs


The gross costs were obtained by adding the cost of in-program services to the out-of-program costs. This total investment must be compared with the total gross cost per control group member to determine the government's net investment per program group member and, in the benefit-cost analysis, the net payoff of that investment. As shown in Table 13.3, the gross costs of the NEWWS programs ranged from $5,990 (Detroit) to $10,727 (Grand Rapids HCD) per program group member over the five-year follow-up period. On average, gross costs were slightly higher for education-focused programs than for employment-focused programs. (See Figure 13.1, Boxes 7 and 10.)