How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Five-Year Impacts on Participation


The previous section described control group members' patterns of participation in largely self-initiated employment-promoting activities over the five-year follow-up period. As noted, control participation levels represent the extent to which program group members would have likely participated in such activities in the absence of a mandatory welfare-to-work program. Participation impacts, or program-control differences, represent the degree to which program group members in the seven mandatory NEWWS programs examined in this chapter participated in employment-promoting activities above and beyond the rate at which they would have participated in the absence of a mandate to participate.