How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Five-Year Impacts on Degree Receipt


Degree attainment can also play an important role in sample members' long-term labor market and welfare behavior. Individuals who received a GED or trade certificate during follow-up may have delayed entry into the labor market while they were attending school. In later years, however, those who attain new education credentials may have a better chance of finding a job or advancing to higher-paying and more stable employment. It is important to note that while research on the economic gains to welfare recipients of skill building, including degree attainment, has been rather inconclusive, a substantial body of research exists that shows the general importance of education credentials in the labor market. The outcomes described in this section thus may play an important role in the economic outcomes discussed in later chapters and in the future labor market success of program group members beyond the follow-up period covered in this report.(13)

In this analysis degree attainment was analyzed separately for high school graduates and nongraduates. For nongraduates, three measures were examined: receipt of a high school diploma or GED certificate, receipt of a trade license or certificate, and receipt of a high school diploma or GED certificate and a second education or training credential. For sample members with a high school diploma or GED at the time of program entry, two measures were analyzed: receipt of any education or training credential (either a trade license or an associate's, bachelor's, or graduate degree) and receipt of a trade license or certificate.