How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Fertility

12/01/2001

While these welfare-to-work programs were not intended to alter fertility behavior, single mothers who are engaged in employment or training and who face a higher cost of becoming pregnant may be less likely to have another child. Or, because of age exemptions for the youngest child, they may have an incentive to have a baby in order to avoid any employment or training requirements.

Table 9.3 (first panel) shows impacts on fertility. There were few significant impacts on the presence of a new baby in the household during the five-year follow-up period. Although there were no program impacts for program group members in the Riverside HCD program, LFA in-need sample members (a subgroup without a high school diploma or GED at study entry) were significantly more likely to have a new baby in the household, and, in fact, a similar effect that approaches statistical significance exists for all program group members in the Riverside LFA program (p = 0.12). (Because respondents were not specifically asked about whether or not they had a baby, this measure captures new births as well as new additions of an infant through marriage, adoption, or foster care.)

 

Table 9.3
Impacts on Fertility and Household Composition
Site and Program Sample Size Program Group (%) Control Group (%) Difference (Impact) Percentage Change (%)

Since random assignment

Presence of a new baby
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,069 11.6 12.4 -0.8 -6.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,145 12.5 12.4 0.1 0.7
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 22.6 21.7 0.9 4.3
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 22.2 21.7 0.5 2.4
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,218 25.5 22.1 3.4 15.5
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 656 28.2 23.1 5.1* 22.2
Riverside Human Capital Development 777 24.1 23.1 1.0 4.5
Portland 504 17.3 22.7 -5.3 -23.6

During month prior to five-year interview

Lives alone
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 2.2 5.8 -3.6*** -62.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 3.2 5.8 -2.6** -44.4
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 3.9 3.5 0.5 13.1
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 4.1 3.5 0.6 17.4
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 3.7 2.4 1.3 52.8
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 3.2 1.2 2.0 159.9
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 3.6 1.2 2.3* 190.4
Portland 504 2.8 3.2 -0.4 -11.6
Lives with children only
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 62.9 61.8 1.1 1.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 65.6 61.8 3.8 6.1
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 45.1 49.6 -4.5 -9.1
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 49.2 49.6 -0.3 -0.7
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 46.0 46.6 -0.6 -1.2
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 50.3 50.1 0.1 0.3
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 47.2 50.1 -2.9 -5.9
Portland 504 48.6 45.2 3.5 7.7
Lives with partner/spouse and children
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 14.4 12.3 2.1 16.9
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 11.3 12.3 -1.0 -8.3
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 34.4 31.5 2.9 9.0
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 31.7 31.5 0.2 0.6
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 31.2 28.5 2.6 9.3
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 29.4 25.5 3.9 15.2
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 29.9 25.5 4.4 17.1
Portland 504 28.5 32.7 -4.2 -12.9
Lives with adult extended family and any children
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,071 17.1 16.7 0.4 2.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,146 18.2 16.7 1.5 8.8
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,097 13.4 12.5 1.0 7.9
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,109 9.8 12.5 -2.7 -21.7
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,219 14.3 16.4 -2.0 -12.4
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 657 13.8 17.1 -3.3 -19.3
Riverside Human Capital Development 778 15.8 17.1 -1.3 -7.9
Portland 504 12.8 12.7 0.1 0.4
Lives with an unrelated adult
Atlanta Labor Force Attachment 1,060 10.0 8.4 1.6 18.7
Atlanta Human Capital Development 1,135 8.8 8.4 0.3 3.7
Grand Rapids Labor Force Attachment 1,090 20.8 19.5 1.3 6.4
Grand Rapids Human Capital Development 1,102 19.5 19.5 -0.1 -0.3
Riverside Labor Force Attachment 1,213 19.7 17.5 2.2 12.5
Lacked high school diploma or basic skills 654 18.9 17.3 1.6 9.0
Riverside Human Capital Development 774 17.2 17.3 -0.1 -0.7
Portland 502 25.9 21.0 4.9 23.3

SOURCE:  MDRC calculations from the Five-Year Client Survey.
NOTES:  See Appendix A.2.  Owing to missing values, sample sizes may vary.