How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Expenditures for Out-of-Program Employment-Related Services


Program and control group members participated in some employment-related activities when they were not receiving welfare benefits. Although these services were not part of the NEWWS programs, if program and control group members participated in such activities and participated at different rates, the off-welfare services have the potential to differentially increase sample members' earnings and reduce their welfare receipt, and thus are included in the cost estimates. These expenditures are examined in more detail below. (See Figure 13.1, Boxes 4 and 5.)