How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Employment and Earnings


The pattern of impacts on mothers' employment and earnings also does not appear to explain differences in child impacts across programs. For instance, while both Riverside programs produced relatively large gains in both earnings and employment (with the LFA program having these favorable effects both for the full sample and for the subgroup of mothers lacking a high school diploma at baseline), the pattern of child impacts varied according to mothers' education level, with few, but favorable, child impacts for children of mothers without a diploma and somewhat more numerous and unfavorable impacts for children of mothers in the full sample. Further, there were increases of a similar magnitude in earnings in both Atlanta programs and the Grand Rapids LFA program, yet the Atlanta programs generally improved child outcomes whereas the Grand Rapids programs worsened them. Hence, it is not likely that changes in employment and earnings can account for the different pattern of child impacts across programs.