How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. Appendix J:  Child Outcome Measures

12/01/2001

Appendix J
Child Outcome Measures

Measure

Source For Whom Available Description

Social Skills and Behavior a

Externalizing behavior Mother Focal child Includes such behaviors as fighting and arguing with others. Scores could range from 0 to 18. Cronbach's alpha of .78.
Teacher Focal child Includes behaviors such as fighting and arguing. Scores could range from 0 to 15. Cronbach's alpha of .89.
Internalizing behavior Mother Focal child Includes such behaviors as acting sad and being anxious about being with others. Scores could range from 0 to 24. Cronbach's alpha of .66.
Teacher Focal child Includes such behaviors as acting sad and being anxious about being with others. Scores could range from 0 to 18. Cronbach's alpha of .75.
Hyperactivity Mother Focal child Includes such behaviors as disrupting others and acting without thinking. Scores could range from 0 to 18. Cronbach's alpha of .76.
Teacher Focal child Includes such behaviors as disturbing others and acting without thinking. Scores could range from 0 to 6. Cronbach's alpha of .73.
Cooperation Child Focal child Includes such behaviors as listening to adults and finishing schoolwork and homework on time. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .77.
Mother Focal child Includes items addressing neatness, helpfulness at home, and giving of compliments. Scores could range from 0 to 39. Cronbach's alpha of .85.
Teacher Focal child Includes such school-related behaviors as staying focused and completing work. Scores could range from 0 to 27. Cronbach's alpha of .92.
Positive assertion Child Focal child Includes ratings by children themselves on the frequency with which they demonstrate behaviors such as being active with other children and properly handling children who are behaving inappropriately. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .71.
Mother Focal child Includes frequency with which children demonstrate such skills as initiating interaction with other children and making friends. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .83.
Teacher Focal child Includes frequency with which children show such skills as interacting well with other children and making friends. Scores could range from 0 to 18. Cronbach's alpha of .84.
Self-control Child Focal child Includes ratings by children themselves on the frequency with which they demonstrate behaviors such as controlling anger and properly handling children who are behaving inappropriately. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .69.
Mother Focal child Includes such behaviors as speaking politely and responding appropriately to conflict. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .78.
Teacher Focal child Includes such behaviors as responding appropriately to conflict and interacting well with peers. Scores range from 0 to 27. Cronbach's alpha of .92.
Empathy Child Focal child Includes such behaviors as listening to others and trying to understand others' feelings. Scores could range from 0 to 30. Cronbach's alpha of .79.
Responsibility Mother Focal child Includes such behaviors as speaking politely to others and listening to others. Scores could range from 0 to 27. Cronbach's alpha of .80.
Interpersonal skills Teacher Focal child Includes such skills being sensitive to others and making friendships. Scores could range from 0 to 12. Cronbach's alpha of .77.
Positive approaches to learning Teacher Focal child Includes such habits as working carefully and being creative. Scores could range from 0 to 18. Cronbach's alpha of .85.
Academic Functioning
School engagement Childb Focal child From 0 to 3 on seven items measuring school engagement, where 0 = "never true"; 1 = "sometimes true"; 2 = "often true"; 3 = "very often true." Scores therefore range from 0 to 21, with appropriate items reverse-coded so that higher scores indicate more engagement in schools. The items are:

"When I'm in school, I feel happy."

"I work very hard in school."

"When I'm in school, I feel bored."

"When I'm in school, I pay attention in class."

"I try to learn as much as I can about my school subjects."

"When I'm in class, I just pretend to work."

"When I'm in class, I try very hard."

Cronbach's alpha of .75.

  Teacher Focal child Where 1 = "very true"; 2 = "sort of true"; 3 = "not very true"; 4 = "not at all true":

"This student . . .

Comes to class unprepared."

Pays attention."

Works as hard as s/he can."

Does more than is required."

Is interested in schoolwork outside of the classroom."

Thinks about other things in class."

"In my class, this student seems . . .A million miles away."

Interested."

Tuned in."

Sleepy."

Angry." Responses to the items were recoded and given values from 0 to 3. Scores therefore range from 0 to 33. Cronbach's alpha of .92.

Suspended or expelled since last interview (%) Mother Each Child "Since the last interview, (has this child/have any of these children) ever been suspended, excluded, or expelled from school?"
Had disciplinary action taken weekly (%) Teacher Focal child "In the last month or two, how often have you taken any disciplinary action regarding this student? (1) Several times a week; (2) About once a week; (3) One to three times a month; (4) Once in awhile, less than once a month; (5) Never." Categories (1) and (2) were collapsed and the responses were dichotomized to determine whether teachers reported that disciplinary action had taken place weekly.
Had a discipline problem that resulted in parent(s) being notified this school year (%) Teacher Focal child "So far this school year, has this student had any behavior or discipline problem at school that resulted in his/her parent(s) or guardian(s) being sent a note or being asked to come in to meet with you or the principal? (1) No, never; (2) Yes, once; (3) Yes, more than once." Categories (2) and (3) were collapsed and the responses were dichotomized to determine whether focal children had a discipline problem that resulted in their parents being notified this school year.
Dropped out of school (%) Mother Each Child "(Has this child/Have any of these children) ever dropped out of school?" Analyzed for children aged 10 to 24 at the five-year follow-up.
Broad Math Score on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revisedc Assessment Focal child Administered the Calculation and Applied Problems tests. Composite score is age-standardized, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Above-average Broad Math Score (%) Assessment Focal child Focal children with Broad Math scores higher than 110 were considered to have above average scores.
Below-average Broad Math Score (%) Assessment Focal child Focal children with Broad Math scores lower than 90 were considered to have below average scores.
Broad Reading Score on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revisedc Assessment Focal child Administered the Passage Comprehension and Letter-Word Identification tests. Composite score is age-standardized, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.
Above-average Broad Reading Score (%) Assessment Focal child Focal children with Broad Reading scores higher than 110 were considered to have above average scores.
Below-average Broad Reading Score (%) Assessment Focal child Focal children with Broad Reading scores lower than 90 were considered to have below average scores.
Repeated a grade (%) Mother Each Child "Since the last interview, (has this child/have any of these children) repeated a grade for any reason?"
Teacher Focal child "Not counting kindergarten, has this student repeated any grades or been retained in grade for any reason?"
Below grade level, math (%) Teacher Focal child "Is this student currently performing above grade level, below grade level, or right around grade level in reading and math?" Responses were coded so as to obtain the measure of whether the student was below grade level in math.
Above grade level, math (%) Teacher Focal child "Is this student currently performing above grade level, below grade level, or right around grade level in reading and math?" Responses were coded so as to obtain the measure of whether the student was above grade level in math.
Below grade level, reading (%) Teacher Focal child "Is this student currently performing above grade level, below grade level, or right around grade level in reading and math?" Responses were coded so as to obtain the measure of whether the student was below grade level in reading.
Above grade level, reading (%) Teacher Focal child "Is this student currently performing above grade level, below grade level, or right around grade level in reading and math?" Responses were coded to obtain the measure of whether the student was above grade level in reading.
In remedial math group (%) Teacher Focal child "What level-of-ability group is this student in for mathematics? (1) High-ability group, (2) Middle-ability group, (3) Low-ability (or remedial) group, (4) No grouping by ability, or heterogeneous grouping." Responses were dichotomized to obtain the measure of whether the student was in a remedial group for math.
In remedial reading group (%) Teacher Focal child "What level-of-ability group is this student in for reading? (1) High-ability group, (2) Middle-ability group, (3) Low-ability (or remedial) group, (4) No grouping by ability, or heterogeneous grouping." Responses were dichotomized to obtain the measure of whether the student was in a remedial group for reading.
Attended a special class for physical, emotional, or mental condition (%) Mother Each child "(Does your child/Do any of your children) go to a special class or special school, or get special help in school for any physical, emotional, or mental condition?"
Children identified as needing and receiving special services (%) Teacher Focal child Services included Title I services, English as a Second Language (ESL) or bilingual instruction, remedial instruction, speech therapy, or a resource for the gifted. Responses were dichotomized such that focal children were classified as needing and receiving special services if teachers reported they needed and received any of the services.
Children identified as needing and not receiving special services (%) Teacher Focal child Services included Title I services, English as a Second Language (ESL) or bilingual instruction, remedial instruction, speech therapy, or a resource for the gifted. Responses were dichotomized such that focal children were classified as needing and not receiving special services if teachers reported they needed but did not receive any of the services listed. The measures of needing and receiving and needing and not receiving are not mutually exclusive; children could have been identified as needing and receiving some services while needing and not receiving other services.
Days child had been absent during current school year (%) Teacher Focal child "So far this school year, about what percentage of the days that this student has been enrolled in your classroom has he/she been absent for any reason including sickness?"
Days child had been tardy during current school year (%) Teacher Focal child "So far this school year, about what percentage of the days that this student has been enrolled in your classroom has he/she been tardy for any reason including sickness?"
Health and Safety      
General health rating Mother Focal child "Would you say that your child's health in general is: (1) Excellent, (2) Very good, (3) Good, (4) Fair, (5) Poor?"
In very good or excellent health (%) Mother Focal child Responses to the general health rating item were dichotomized so as to obtain the measure of whether the focal child was in very good or excellent health.
Had a physical, emotional, or mental condition that required frequent medical attention (%) Mother Each child "(Does your child/Do any of your children) have a physical, emotional, or mental condition that requires frequent medical attention, frequent use of medication, or the use of any special equipment such as a wheelchair or a breathing mask?" It was specified that this does not include eyeglasses.
Had a physical, emotional, or mental condition that impeded on mother's ability to go to work/school (%) Mother Each child "(Does your child/Do any of your children) have a physical, emotional, or mental condition that demands a lot of your attention and makes it hard for you to go to school or work?"
Accident, injury, or poisoning that required an emergency room visit (%) Mother Each child "Since the last interview, (has your child/have any of your children) had an accident, injury, or poisoning requiring a visit to a hospital emergency room or clinic?"
Other Outcomes      
Did not live with parent, since last interview, because parent could not care for child (%) Mother Each child "Since the last interview, (has your child/have any of your children) not lived with you because you couldn't care for (him/her/them)?"
Ever had a baby as a teen (%) Mother Each child "(Has your child/Have any of your children) had a baby?" Analyzed for children aged 14 to 24 at the five-year follow-up, though analysis was limited to those having had a baby as a teenager.
NOTES: Some items were asked of each child in the family while others were asked of only the focal child. The "for whom available" column notes for which group of children each item was asked. The items asked of each child are reported in Chapters 11 and 12. The items asked of the focal child only are reported only in Chapter 12. Cronbach's alphas are reported on the mother/child Child Outcomes Study sample (N = 2,332) for the mother- and child-report items and on the teacher sample (N = 1,472) for the teacher-report items.
a Items adapted from Gresham and Elliot, 1990. In the social skills domain, focal children responded to items with 0 = "Never"; 1 = "Sometimes"; 2 = "Often"; or 3 = "Very often." Mothers also responded to items with 0 = "Never" to 3 = "Very often.". Teachers responded to items with 1 = "Never"; 2 = "Sometimes"; 3 = "Often"; or 4 = "Very often"; responses were recoded from 0 to 3.
bThe child school engagement scale is by Connell, 1990.
c Woodcock and Johnson, 1989, 1990.